Skip to main content

Full text of "Greek atrocities in the vilayet of Smyrna (May to July 1919) : inedited documents and evidence of English and French officers (first series)"

See other formats


GREEK RTROCITIES 



VILHYET OF SMYRNA 

(MAY TO JULY 1919) 

INEDITED DOCUMENTS AND EVIDENCE OF ENGLISH AND FRENCH OFFICERS 

(First series) 



Published by 

The Permanent Bureau of the Turkish Congress 
at Lausanne. 



LAUSANNE 
IMPRIMEKIE FETTER, LESSER & HELD. Caroline, 5 

1H19 



GREEK ATROCITIES 

IN THE 

VILAYET OF SMYRNA 

(MAY TO JULY 1919) 

INEDITED DOCUMENTS AND EVIDENCE OF ENGLISH 
AND FRENCH OFFICERS 

(First series) 



Published by 

The Permanent Bureau of the Turkish Congress 
at Lausanne. 



LAUSANNE 
IMPRIMERIE PETTER. GIESSER & HELD, Caroline. 5 

1919 



STACK AHHtt 



INTRODUCTION 

The ancient Eyalet, which became, about three quarters 
of a century ago, the present Vilayet of Smyrna, is the brigh- 
test Asiatic jewel of the Ottoman Crown. 

Occupied by an overwhelming majority of Turks, even 
previously to the Seldjoukides (Xth century) it constitutes 
amongst all the provinces of Anatolia, the most populous, 
the richest and the most prosperous. Its inhabitants are 
renowned for thier bravery and their proverbial sturdiness. 
There are 1.500.000 Turks, husbandmen for the most part, 
as against 30.000 Greeks, traders and smugglers. 

Since the re-establishment of the Constitution (1918) the 
Turks of Smyrna and Ai'din have been amongst all their fellow- 
countrymen of the Empire, those who gave themselves up the 
most to agricultural and industrial enterprises and thus were 
formidable competitors for the Greeks who enriched them- 
selves without effort by monopolising the productions of the 
Hinterland by the creation of trusts of purchase and expor- 
tation. 

During the two last wars when the Greek merchants 
fleeing Ottoman military service as well indeed as Hellenic 
conscription descended on the markets of Alexandria, Mar- 
seilles Vienna, Switzerland and America, which felt the effects 
of it very grievously the commerce of the Vilayet of Smyrna 
passed entirely into the hands of the Turkish farmers who, 
in order to defend themselves against future dangers of the 
same sort, created numerous local banks, factories and pro- 
ducers' cooperative societies. 

The last Greek attack launched under the protection of 
the armistice which had imposed the demobilisation of the 
Ottoman armies whose field arttilery was all confiscated was 
in fact only an assault of the parasites who had been evicted 

3 



by the awakening of Turkish initiative. It was the venting of 
the helpess rage of the monopolizers and usurers, hopelessly 
dispossessed not of their own belongings, but of their ancient 
fields of cheatery. 

The Hellenic authorities with the profound experience 
that characterises them in the oppression and extermination 
of the allogeneous peoples who have fallen into their clutches, 
began, immediately after the occupation, to put into force 
again their former ignoble system which met with such 
success in the Morea, in Thessaly, in Epire, in Crete and re- 
cently also in Macedonia. It consists first of all in pouring a 
flood of professional bandits, of criminals of whom Greece 
more than any other country possesses the monopoly, into 
every corner of ground where a Hellenic soldier has set foot. 
The native Greek scoundrels are always ready to lend them 
a helping hand and an acute period of atrocious tyranny begins 
at once. While the famous agency of Athens, by a profusion 
of lies and slanders, of false accounts of Turkish atrocities, 
diverts attention and throws a thick veil over the crimes of 
its andartes and of its palikares, the latter more and more 
excited by the newspapers, assured of impunity, do not shrink 
from any infamy. Turkish villages burning, violations, mas- 
sacres perpetrated upon peaceful Turkish inhabitants become 
the order of the day. The unfortunate population, persecuted, 
terrified, has no longer the courage to withstand such a re- 
gime : in a body they leave their homes, their villages, their 
crops, abandoning their fortune, their possessions, everything 
to save then' lives and their honour. All these poor ruined fold, 
often bereaved of their dearest ones, are stranded miserably 
in the nonoccupied parts of the Mother-country. Everywhere 
in Turkey one meets these poor Mouhadjirs (emigrants), 
Cretes, Moreans, Macedonians, Epiriens, Thessalonians and 
others, uprooted, in quest of aid or protection, and whose 
tragic fate and account of their misfortunes stir the indigna- 
tion of the most blase. 

The visible persecutions, the sytematic atrocities only 
cease to give place to the subtle exactions of the administ- 



rative authorities. Wise oppression, learned despotism, aiming 
methodically as Elysee Reclus, the eminent French geographer 
says, at the degradation of the allogenes, is applied with a 
veritable art. All that is not tireek is in fact outlawed. No 
opportunity is lost of making them feel the spurred heel of 
the oppressor. Even in the courts of justice which invariably 
decide against all who are not Greek! This little people, im- 
bued with great unrealisable ambitions is of a ferocious fana- 
ticism, an 'incredible cruelty, a craftiness, an unparalleled 
perfidiousness towards those who have the misfortune to fall 
under its domination. 

Such is the system of government applied to the allogenes 
in the XXth. century, in the civilised Hellenic Kingdom; such 
is the people that aspires to rule in the East over millions of 
populations of another race, of another religion than its own. 
To give over a country to Greece is to doom its inhabitants 
to torture to depopulate it, to condemn it to moral and ma- 
terial ruin. 

It was thus that they acted hi the Morea which had 
three hundred thousand Mussulman inhabitants in 1830, in 
Thessaly which numbered a hundred and fifty thousand in 
1878, in Crete which' possessed 50.000 Turkish inhabitants 
in 1897. In the Morea and in Thessaly to-day there no longer 
exists a single Turkish soul. In Crete scarcely 20.000 Turks 
have been able to survive the painful calvary of twenty years 
of Greek oppression! In a short time none will be left. Mace- 
donia, under the Greek heel, has lost in a few years the two 
thirds of her best sons. As for Epire .... if the stones of this 
poor country drowned in her blood, could be made to speak, 
one would be ashamed of being a man since the authors of 
these abominable crimes consider themselves also as such! 

The Greek occupation with all its attendant horrors and 
crimes has fallen also on the vilayet of Smyrna. 

Detachments of regulars and bands of Greek comitadjis 
have terrorised and given over to fire and sword these para- 
disaical regions which the Turkish regime has left free from 



all incursion during five centuries. One of the rare Ottoman 
provinces on whose soil no fighting had been witnessed for 
five hundred years, has just been the theatre of a hideous 
invasion which in a few days reduced it to the likeness of the 
perpetual battlefields of Macedonia; they have transformed 
this marvellous country into a vast desert. Nearly 50.000 Turks 
have perished there in the most frightful torments, whilst 
300.000 other fugitives wander about without medicaments, 
without shelter and without resource all round the zone of 
Greek occupation which has become a hell for the Mussulmans. 

At Smyrna itself in the great port of the Aegean Sea, 
under the very eyes of indignant foreigners, no infamy has 
been spared the Turkish population. The reports that we have 
published to day throw sufficient light on the baseness of these 
adventurers. But two parts of this province where the crimes 
become of a truly reyolting magnitude are Menemen and Aidin. 

Almost the whole Turkish population of Menemen were 
massacred without any provocation, without any motive which 
even the existence of disturbances could justify. As to the 
tragedy of Aidin, it exceeds in horror all that can be imagined. 

Nero, in setting fire to Rome, had not condemned the po- 
pulation to be burnt alive in their dwellings. That is however 
what the Greeks did at Aidin. From Smyrna as far as Nazilli 
all the towns, villages, hamlets are nothing but a heap of 
ruins and ashes. Most of them scarcely hide amongst their 
still smoking wreckage, the carbonised corpses, the bleeding 
remains of thousands of poor innocent Turks, of women, of 
children, of old men sacrificed to the ferocity of the Hellenic 
hordes. From all this devastated region, formerly one of the 
most prosperous, a cry of frightful distress arises to-day. 

The Permanent Bureau of the Turkish Congress at Lau- 
sanne is able to publish to-day some document bearing wit- 
ness in the most unquestionable fashion to the extent and 
magnitude of the Greek atrocities. 

It cannot specially insist on the reading of such and such 
a paper, all without exception presenting a documentary and 



historic interest of the highest importance on an unexampled 
calamity that an error of political appreciation has let loose 
over a part of our unhappy country. 

Nothing can compare with this pitiless and bloody ho- 
unding down of the Turk, which from the admission of En- 
glish, French, and Italian witnesses characterises the Greek 
occupation and the systematic destruction of our dear province. 

Women of the high Greek society, elegant ladies of 
Smyrna have given proof of a Kaffirlike bestiality taking 
delight, even taking part with songs and laughter in the most 
abject mutilations. 

But bloodshed is never forgiven and justice works out 
her ends. 

Under whatever regime we may live our dead will always 
have a hold over Hellenism. 

The victory of the allies cannot be regarded as a victory 
of the Cross over the Crescent. The Mussulmans who fought 
in the ranks of the allies would be surprised to learn that they 
had shed their blood in such a cause. Quite otherwise were 
the affirmations solemnly made to them when they were in- 
vited to enrol themselves under the banner of the Entente. 

In submitting these reports and testimonies to the superior 
fraction of public opinion which professes the same humanita- 
rian interest towards all the oppressed without distinction of 
race or religion, we appeal to the impartial opinion of Europe 
and of America that justice nothing but justice may be 
rendered to the rights of an overwhelming Turkish majority 
and that the Turkish province of Smyrna may be for ever clean- 
sed from the pollution of a multitude of criminal adventurers. 



7 



Translation of the letter No 1/24516, dated 26th 

June 1919, addressed by the Colonel Kemal, Commandant 

General of the Gendarmerie, to the French Colonel 

Foulon, Inspector General. 

Since the signing of the armistice, the various events 
which take place in the different parts of the Empire as well 
as the crimes committed there are regularly communicated 
to you by the report which the Commandant General receives 
daily from the commandants of the Gendarmerie units. 

You must certainly have remarked that it 'is the Turks 
who suffer the most from these events and from these crimes. 
The reports that you yourself receive from the foreign officers 
attached to the reorganisation of the gendarmerie only corro- 
borate the events which are notified to me by the comman- 
dants of the aforesaid units, whose reports are submitted to 
you in the original. 

The Greek bands which are formed everywhere are con- 
tinually attacking the lives, the property and the honour of 
the Turks. The gendarmerie at whose reorganisation numeri- 
cally as well 'as from the point of view of quality you also 
work with such great ardour, is overcoming the great diffi- 
culties it encounters from this cause. It carries out its service 
with zeal and the last reports that reach us, denote that its 
activity is crowned with success in a certain measure. 

Only when the gendarmerie is overwhelmed by events 
whose extent is beyond its means to control, inevitably, not- 
hing can be done to prevent these criminal acts. 

Thus for instance, in the course of the occupation of 
Smyrna and during the days which followed this occupation, 
the Hellenic soldiers to whom the native Greeks had formerly 
joined themselves, committed crimes against the population. 
The officers and men of the Ottoman gendarmerie were not 
spared. Those of our officers and gendarmes who are now at 
Smyrna and its neighbourhood continue to be exposed to bad 

8 



treatment and in consequence are prevented from carrying 
out their service. 

It stands out from the reports which I have the honour 
to forward you, respecting the occupation, under atrocious 
circumstances of the Cazas (districts) of Menemen and Ber- 
gamo, coming after that of Smyrna, that the massacres car- 
ried out by the regular Hellenic troops in conjunction with 
the native Greeks were of such a bloody nature that they 
form a blot on the history of the twentieth century. Accor- 
ding to these reports the number of victims, including women, 
children, old men and sick and infirm people, massacred at 
Menemen by the Hellenic regulars by the native Greeks is 
estimated at a thousand Mussulmans. The deputy governor 
of the Gaza as well as most of the functionaries of the local 
authorities were abominably massacred without any reason. 

It results from the reports that I receive on all hands 
that the Turks who from the large majority of the population 
of the Cazas in question have had to leave in a body, to the 
number of eighty thousand, their villages, their homes, their 
crops and even their children of tender years and to emigrate 
to other regions in order to save their lives and their honour, 
and not to share the dreadful lot of their co-religionists. 

I am absolutely convinced that the great nations of Europe 
and America, whose generous and humanitary sentiments are 
well known, will never permit this unhappy and innocent popu- 
lation, which. after all forms part of the human race, to be 
thus continually and savagely threatened, its property pillaged 
and destroyed and its honour sullied. 

It is beyond all doubt thet the crimes every day more 
numerous, committed by the Hellenes, who glory openly in 
having occupied Smyrna by the decision of the Powers of the 
Entente, would be severely repressed and their authors pu- 
nished, if they could be brought to the notice, with all their 
details, of the governments which represent the great, just 
nations of Europe and of America, Indeed I am convinced 
that all sorts of artifices are employed to prevent the crimes 



committed being brought to their knowledge. I have then re- 
course to your great generosity, which every day manifests 
itself afresh, and beg you, in order to save my unhappy nation 
from the unbearable calamities under which she is overwhel- 
med to point out these crimes to the powerful personages who 
hold in their hands the destinies of the world and to inform 
the civilised universe that the Turks and the Mussulmans are 
being slaughtered like sheep and that their existence, their 
property and their honour are being annihilated. 

Your compassionate intervention will perhaps contribute 
to put an end to the injustices to which is exposed an unhappy 
people which, like every other nation has a right to existence. 
Though I am at the head of an organisation charged with the 
protection, the life, the honour and the property of the popula- 
tion, I unhappliy do not succeed in fulfilling this mission. Thus 
I sincerely trust, that with your highly humanitarian senti- 
ments you will fully share the profound grief that I feel at 
seeing the innocent blood of my nation shed every day and 
that you will receive my solicitations favourably. 

The Turkish people which cherishes in its bleeding heart 
a well founded hope in you, which awaits with 'impatience the 
results of the steps which you will surely not fail to take for 
its protection and the defence of its just cause, is ready to 
inscribe in its glorious history in letters of gold your venerated 
name. 

I take this opportunity Sir of begging you to accept the 
expression of my gratitude. 



The Commandant General of the Gendarmerie, 

(signed) The Colonel A. KEMAL SIRRI. 



10 



The Tragedy of Smyrna 



MEMORIAL 

Presented on the 13th of June 1919 by the Committeefor 

the Defence of Ottoman Bights hi Smyrna to H. H. 

Tewfick Pacha, Ottoman Plenipotentiary at the Peace 

Conference. 

Your Highness, 

We notice with regret that the high political spheres act 
under the instigation of certain ambitious and unscrupulous 
politicians who, to aid them in their designs of appropriating 
to their own advantage our legitimate rights, do not hesitate 
to compromise the Turkish good name by slanders and fal- 
sehoods. It is moreover in this disloyal manner that they sow 
mistrust amongst the civilised world as to our present or fu- 
ture conduct, which cannot but be in conformity with the con- 
ception of liberty and of justice that characterises the new 
era. Thus the Committee for the Defence of Ottoman Rights 
in Smyrna begs Your Highness to be pleased to present, with 
all the earnestness they deserve, our complaints here set forth, 
to the attention and to the spirit 6f equity of these high poli- 
tical Spheres. 

At the moment when one is still mourning the torrents 
of blood lavished in profusion, one must confess that this 
general war, the responsibility of whose declaration and pro- 
longation ought to fall upon the directors of certain States, 
who by all sorts of means were able to stifle the voice of their 
people, had everywhere given birth to the hope of the estab- 
lishment of a lasting peace, based upon the true principles 
of humanity and of justice. Your Highness is aware that the 
first unexpected blow which gravely shook this hope in our 

11 



country was the occupation, with premeditated savagery, of 
Smyrna by the Hellenic troops. 

This occupation is effected with the aim of preparing a 
propitious ground, under the yoke of an unsignificant Greek 
minority which one seems decided to strengthen by Hellenic 
measures, for a policy of rapid extermination of the enormous 
Mussulman majorty inhabiting the Vilayet of Aidin. 

Effected in defiance of the national self-respect of the 
right to existence and of the sentiment of the Turks, it has 
brought out it is true, the profound difference of conception 
which separates the Ottoman Sovereignty from the brutal 
Hellenic domination, but has justly plunged the whole Mus- 
sulman population into an alarming anxiety as to their ulti- 
mate safety. The robberies, pillages, outrages, murders and 
barbarities of which Smyrna and her dependencies were, and 
still are the theatre since this fatal occupation, were never 
experienced for a single day under the Ottoman sovereignty. 
The Greek army has not hesitated to commit against the Mu- 
sulmans acts of an ignominy that would have been repugnant 
even to the barbarian hordes of antiquity carrying a town by 
storm at the cost of heavy and bloody sacrifies. 

The native Greeks who have lived for centuries in tran- 
quillity and opulence, thanks to the benevolent attitude of the 
Turks and to the privileges they were granted; these people 
who more than any others have enriched themselves and pro- 
fited by the economic resources of the Empire while the Tur- 
kish people shed its blood freely in order to maintain the order 
and security of the country; these false brothers for whose 
prosperity and development we have been drained to the ut- 
most, were the first to give the bad example to their Hellenic 
co-religionists. 

The uniforms, fez, turbans, even the pictures and works 
of art representing national subjects were the object of the 
destructive rage of the Greek soldiers and civilians. Today the 
Mussulmans of the occupied territories enjoy no liberty at all. 
The governmental correspondence is under a severe control, 

12 



the Turkish newspapers are under an inexorable censorship 
and the Turks are under the continual menace of Greek ruf- 
fians. The revolting events which took place at Smyrna having 
had for disgusted witnesses all the foreigners and the naval 
forces of the Entente, we judge it unnecessary to recall them 
here; moreover the precautions taken by the Greeks to prevent 
all communication, have deprived us of the details upon the 
inhuman crimes committed by the Hellenes. We shall content 
ourselves here, with giving a brief summary of the events 
which took place at Rournabat, Bosyaka, Djuma-Ovassi, He- 
uredje, Nife, Sivri-Hissar, Ourla and also a very incomplete 
list of the human losses and of the Turkish houses and shops 
pillaged. 

In the course of the occupation all the drawers, cup- 
boards, safes of the Government were broken open and the 
contents scattered everywhere in the hope of finding paper 
money; besides that, all that the employes had on them, even 
their clothes, their overcoats and other things were stolen. 
From the vaM to the humblest clerk all were driven along the 
quay in a scandalous manner, their hands up, and commanded 
under pain of death to shout Zito Venizelos ; at every step 
they received showers of blows from the butt ends of guns 
and from bayonets. A large group of schoolmasters was con- 
ducted to the ship Patris with the same revolting ceremo- 
nial to be interned there. Among the officers who were in the 
barracks fourteen were killed; amongst others the Colonel 
Fethy Bey, Nadu- Bey, Fahreddin Effendi, Ahmed Bey, etc. 
The student Ihsan Effendi No 30 of the sehool of Arts and 
Crafts was murdered by evzones in front of the Banque Ag- 
ricole. The mahalebidji (milkman) Ahmed Aga of the Djedit 
quarter was cut to pieces. The agents of the Central police 
office were savagely killed at. their posts by the soldiers. The 
police superintendent de Nourla Hussein Effendi was also cul 
to pieces in front of the Banque Agricole. The proprietor of 
the newspaper Houkoukou Becher (The Rights of Man) Tahsin 
Redjeb Bey was killed in his house. Two young printer lads 
of the newspaper Keuylu were assassinated. Refik Effendi 

13 



military policeman was killed in a horrible manner. At the 
military hotel opposite the Government buildings eight per- 
sons," men, women and children were assassinated. Halid 
Effendy a police functionary was killed. Saghir Hassan and 
Cavass Ahmed de Sparta were victims of the son of the keeper 
of a house of ill-fame a certain Iskona Marianti. About fifty 
mussulmans, boatmen of the place called Passports, were 
chained together and drowned in the sea. Their bodies with 
those of a great number of other victims were gradually 
washed up along the coast. The tax-gatherer of the Tilkilik 
quarter, Noury Bey, was riddled by bayonets and finally 
succumbed before the printing-house of Keuylu from the effcts 
of about fifty wounds. The former police officer Ahmed Effen- 
di was cut to pieces by Greek soldiers. The boatman Tatar 
Hussein was murdered. Many families whose names we ref- 
rain from mentioning were dishonoured. The folio whig houses, 
shops, hotels, casinos establishments were pillaged and sac- 
ked : The casino du Pare, the cafe and Hotel Askeri. The Han 
d'Evlia Zade, the restaurant Boloulou Mehemed, the books- 
shop Ahmed Ragbib freres, dairy and pastry cook's Ibrahim 
Hakki, the chemist's shop Chifa, the Club "Foyer du Droit" 
of Ekmekdji Bachi Han, the shoemaker's shop Hadji Hafiz 
Mustapha Freres, the restaurant Ismail Effendi and his house 
at Caratache, the shops of Taschdji Osman Effendi; Hadji Ha- 
fiz Fikri and Selanikli Hafiz Hussein, the Bazaar of Ala-Chehir, 
the shop of the shoemaker Hakki Austa, the carpets and 
sedjades of the mosques Hissar and Beulcuk Bashi, the ca- 
sino of the officers of reserve opposite the Passeports, the 
shop of the watchmaker Tewfik at Odoun Bazar, at Arasta 
and in front of the old law court aboul 120 mussulman shops, 
the shop of Kerestedji Djihan Bey, the house at Kilidj Ali of 
the Superintendent of Police Mehmed Effendi, that of the 
agent Mustapha at Dibek Baschi, the shop of Ali Haydar, the 
house of the census director Hassan Bey at Alay Bey, at Ka- 
ratach not a stone was left standing of the house Noury Bey, 
at Gueuz-Tepe of the house of the watchmaker Hafiz Mehmed 
Effendi, of the house of the late Baldji Zade Hamid Bey; at 
Karantina of the house of Lieutenant Colonel Tahir Bey and 

14 



that of Captain Hilmi Bey; in the street Mektoubdji the house 
of the ex-commodore, that of the secretary of the vilayet Ah- 
med Bey the house and the shop of Akardjali Zade Hadji Bec- 
kir Effendi, the house of the ex-director of the central prison 
Noury Bey, the house at Bozyaka of Hussein Rifat Bey, all 
the house of the quarter Eshref Pacha under pretext of 
searching for arms. In the street Franque, the private hospi- 
tals of the doctors Mehmed Ali, Essad Nazif, Cherif, Fuad, 
Djevdet, etc. 

At Bournabat on the 16th May 1919 the mussulman popu- 
lation was the object of the fury of the venizelits who attac- 
ked their houses, stript them of every object of value and thre- 
atened them with the worst reprisals if they were denounced. 
Here is the of list of the proprietors whose houses were sacked. 
Dr. Ghalib Bey, the retired Major Tahsin Bey, Ahmed Effendi 
of the Banque Agricole, the retired Hussein Hussni Effendi, 
Aidinli Karanfil Noury Bey, ete... The losses of these persons 
amount to about 5000 Turkish pounds. From Ghalib' s wife and 
daughters the jewels and precious stones they were wearing 
were brutally torn away. A large number of cattle and flocks 
of sheep were carried off. Implements of husbandry to the 
vaue of 18.000 pounds were destroyed. Among the inhabitants 
one named Sadik aged 55 years and one named Hadji Omer 
Oglou Hussein (45 years) were killed and thrown into a well. 
Dibagh Ali and five soldiers who could not be identified at 
Palamouth, and the workmen Ali and Hadji Mehmed Agha 
were shot by ignoble assassins; the native of Crete Emin and 
his son Mouharem were strangled with a cord and thrown 
into a well. At. Palamouth, Merdjan and Tchoban Hussein 
were gravely wounded. Besides these fourteen other persons 
were killed by firearms. On Sunday, by order of the Greek 
Commandant, the mussulmans were forbidden to open their 
shops before the services in the Christian churches are over. 

3. The region of the villages of Gueuredje and Djouma 
Ovassi were pillaged and burnt; the inhabitants have all 
emigrated abandoning their homes. 

15 



-4. At Nife, it is an escaped convict named Cassaross, 
condemned for assassinations and various crimes to 15 years 
hard labour, who today in Greek uniform is charged by the 
Greek authorities, in company with some of his former com- 
panions in crime, with the maintenance of order and security. 
The molestations of the mussulmans by these brigands have 
reached a point that baffles description. Seven Musulmans 
arrested by these vagabonds were left 3 days without anything 
to eat or drink. The houses of the village of Kara-Tcham were 
pulled down to be used for fire wood by the Greek soldiers 
sent to look for wood. 

5. At Vourla a certain Mehmed died in consequence of 
ill-treatment inflicted by the Greek soldiers. A great many of 
the Houses of the caza were pillaged whilst those of the sur- 
rounding villages became the prey of the flames. 

6. At Sivri-Hissar the gendarmes and officers were loc- 
ked up for there days in the Greek school and at the residence 
of the Caimakam, respectively, after which they were sent 
on food to Smyrna. The inhabitants under the futile pretext 
of searching Jfor arms were imprisoned and beaten. The nota- 
bilities Mehmed Bey and Behdjet Effendi were maltreated 
all along the way to Smyrna, where they are still in prison. 
The latter who is major of the commune of Doghan was the 
lauhingstock of his warders, who made him sweep the streets 
of Vourla. 

7. Not content with these cruelties and attacks upon 
honour, liberty of conscience was also trampled under foot 
and Mussulmans were forced to conversion by then- executi- 
oners. We can mention here the policemen of the Karakol of 
Fassoula. Chefket and Ramezan effendis who were named 
respectively Lefter and Dimitri. 

Your Highness, 

These facts that we have just related and those of which 
we have not yet been able to get information, these barba- 
rous and ignoble acts, perpetrated under the very eyes of the 
foreigners, of the forces of the Entente and of their comman- 

16 



dants including the admiral in chief Calthrop, justify the 
anguish of the Turkish population which sees its honour, its 
life and its prosperity in danger. The Hellenic policy which 
has reduced to nothing the Turkish population of Thessaly, 
which in the isle of Crete has reduced it from one third to one 
tenth, which even in such a short space of time has succeeded 
in reducing it by one half in Macedonia this policy is calculated 
to drive to despair even the most short-sighted of optimists. 

We beg you consquently to present these facts to the atten- 
tion of the Peace Conference and to make it cleary understand 
that the Mussulman population which composes the 85 % of 
the total population of the Vilayet of Smyrna, that is the over- 
whelming majority will never be able to admit nor accept a 
peace which would rob it of the smallest portion of these co- 
untries in order to give it in justly to any other nation, above 
all to the most cruel and intolerant among them. In giving this 
mandate to Your Highness we are supported by the express 
will of the inhabitants of the whole vilayet, a will which is 
entirely confirmed by the resistance they oppose to the Hellenic 
intrusion. 



Copy of the report addressed to the Ministry of 

War by the General Ali Nadir Pacha commanding 

the IVth Army corps of Smyrna. 

May 20th 1919 

1. I had informed your Excellency of the official commu- 
nication made to me by the English Admiral Calthrop the 
14/5/1919 at 9 h. in the morning, and announcing to me the 
occupation of the fortified positions of Smyrna by the forces 
of the Entente according to the clauses of article seven, of the 
armistice. It informed me also that this decision had been 
brought to the knowledge of the Sublime-Porte. Your Excelle- 
ncy had replied that naturaly must conform to the clauses 
of the armistice, and not give ear to the persistent rumours 
of the annexation of the town of Smyrna to Greece, rumours 
that I had also not failed to communicate to Your Excellency. 

17 



2. The same day at 11 h. 30 a. m. the admiral Calthrop 
communicates to me the following note : 

"According to the seventh article of the armistice and 
with the consent of the Powers of the Entente, Smyrna will 
be occupied by the Hellenic troops. The transports which are 
to convey them will begin the landing tomorrow morning at 
8 o'clock. From 7 o'clock detachments of Greek sailors will 
occupy the landing stairs. To prevent any regrettable incident 
and any misunderstanding, all the troops in the quarter of 
the Passeports, as far as the point, except the posts of police 
and gendarmerie, must concentrate at the barracks and con- 
form to the decision of the commandant of the occupation 
corps. The Telegraph and Post-Office will be immediately 
occupied by an English detachment to prevent all communi- 
cation with the exterior." 

The note ended with the threat that if necessary order 
and tranquillity would be maintained by means of the naval 
forces of the Entente present in the port. The case was bro- 
ught to Your Excellency's knowledge the 15/5/1919 at 1 h. p. 
m. and orders were immediately given to conform to the 
prescriptions of the note and for the maintenance of order. 

3. The 15/5/1919 the Greek detachment having landed 
marched to the barracks at 11 o'clock in the morning. At the 
head of the troops, a large Greek flag was carried by native 
Greeks who surrounded and preceded them in a compact body, 
shouting Zito Venizelos and applauding frantically. It was 
in this state that the crowd and the soldiers began to march. 
In the barracks the officers and men of the army corps of the 
recruiting office of the 56th division, of the regiment of ca- 
valry and of divers bodies of troops were at their posts. The 
procession had already passed and turned round the barracks 
by the tramway street when a shot went off, fired very likely 
by a Greek manifester. The Greek troops then immediately 
took up their position against the barracks and opened a steady 
fire; a light machine gun posted not far from there also took 
part in the fusillade. The officers surprised by the sudden- 

-18- 



'ness and energy of the attack assembled in the corridors of 
the building where the firing did not take much effect. 

Convinced that incident provoked had been premeditated 
with the object of disorganising the Turkish administrative 
machinery, and of profiting by that to injure the rights of 
the peaceful inhabitants, and understanding moreover that 
to remedy this state of things the only means was to stop 
the firing, I did my utmost to bring this about. But every 
attempt on our part only had the effect of redoubling the fu- 
sillade. As a last resource I had a white flag fastened to a long 
pole and following it, I proceeded in person towards the Greek 
troops. I then saw them, officers and soldiers alike, rush 
upon us with fixed bayonets. Moreover to prove that we had 
absouutely not returned fire and to leave no room for doubt 
I and my followers were unarmed. There I stopped. Our 
presence which ought to have imposed calm upon the least 
disciplined of armies, exasperated them on the contrary and 
the firing continued for some time. 

4. From the monent that we crossed the doorway of the 
barracks there began for us a series of crimes and insults such 
as has never been recorded in history up to now. Never has 
the dignity and honour of governments as well as soldiers been 
attacked in the way the Greeks attacked ours. Without any dis- 
tinction of rank or grade, myself included, the disarmed offi- 
cers were attacked with the grossest insults. Under a rain of 
blows from bayonets and butt ends of guns, they were sear- 
ched, everything found on them was stolen, handkerchiefs, 
watches, pocketbooks, snuff-boxes, rings, money ete. Our 
military head dresses were slashed and trampled upon. Then 
surrounded by a crowd spitting out the foulest insults, this 
unhappy convoy was marched off. The Hellenic officers who 
were there, far from preventing these unworthy abuses, on 
the contrary excited by their attitudes and gestures this co- 
arse populace and their low instincts. 

5. Then a most horrible spectacle, a scene to make the 
most hardened, the most blase heart shudder with indignation, 

19 



took place all along the road. The troops of occupation ranged 
on both sides and the Greek populace armed with revolvers 
fired at a venture on the convoy and at every step struck the 
the officers with sticks, with daggers and anything they could 
lay hands on. People who were on the Greek boats anchored 
in the port, on the balconies of the houses and apartments, 
in cafes or elsewhere, all native Greeks or Hellenic soldiers, 
all participated more or less in some way or other in this 
frightful ordeal. Officers with their hands up were forced to 
cry "Zitos", Many of them as well as of the soldiers succumbed 
beneath the blows or were killed or wounded by the firearms. 
It was in front of the Oriental Bank and near a Greek torpedo 
boat moored to the quay that we were the most exposed to 
the fire. All this went on under the eyes of the foreigners, of 
the officers and soldiers of the naval units of the Entente, 
present at this moment. Although our losses have not been 
entirely determined one may count more tham 40 killed and 
60 wounded; among the victims may be mentioned the head 
of the recruiting office of the IVth. Army Corps, Colonel 
Suleiman Fethi Bey, the staff Colonel Ali Bey, the head doc- 
tor Lieutenant Colonel Chukri Bey, and the chief of staff 
Abdoul Hamid Bey and many others. 

6. In the boats more than thirty evzones, ordered to 
search the officers afresh, behaved as was to be expected in 
the vilest manner. They spared them no insult, no humiliation. 

7. All the officers including myself were driven into the 
holds of the boats beside the animals. After 6 or 7 hours of 
ill-treatment and imprisonment, I, the chief of staff Abdoul 
Hamid Bey and the ommandant of the 56th division were led 
to the harracks with the object of completing in a delay of 
two hours the evacuation of the town. 

8. The officers remaining in the boat were much later, led 
by degrees into the second class cabins. In these cabins which 
held at the most thirty persons, were crowded about a hundred 
and fifty officers and a great number of the policemen and civi- 
lians who had been arrested. During the 48 hours which elap- 

20 



sed before the arrival of the allied officers absolutely no food 
was given them, and after that they received only dry bread, 
cheese and a few figs. The wounded officers were bandaged 
very carelessly and one of them whose condition was very 
serious was left for two days without care and without ban- 
dages. They could only breathe fresh air for a few moments 
every three or four hours when they were allowed to go up 
on deck. I spare you all the details of the frightful misery 
endured by the body of officers during their internment. 

9. As a result of our continual efforts we managed the 
15/5/1919 to remove the officers from this painful situation: 
they were taken back to the barracks, from where some hours 
later, the married men were able by means of permits delivered 
by the Hellenic military authorities, to return home while those 
who were unmarried were kept at the barracks. 

10. Here is a summary of the occurrences that took place 
in the barracks and other military buildings. 

The whole barracks were the object of attacks and robbe- 
ries; the safes of the Army Corps, the Recruiting office of the 
56th division, and of the engineers' battalion containing more 
than a hundred and fifty thousand pounds were completely 
pillaged. All the effects of the soldiers and officers were stolen. 

11. The soldiers and officers belonging to bo bodies of 
troops stationed outside the barracks, were arrested separately, 
beaten, insulted, robbed and the safes of these establishments 
were likewise pillaged. 

12. The officers thus stript of all they had on them, find 
themselves in a state of complete destitution. Besides the ho- 
uses of most of them have been completely sacked. A certain 
number of officers' families also underwent outrages at the 
hands of Greek bandits. In consequence all the officers of 
Smyrna are today prostrated, destitute and profoundly afflic- 
ted. 

13. The regiments of Aivalik, of Magnesie, of Aidin, of 
Sauke and of Anatolia belonging to my commandment have 

21 



not so far been able to communicate with me. I shall inform 
you as soon as it is possible for them. 

I beg your Excellency to accept ete. 

All Nadir Pacha. 



Cipher report addressed the 20/5/1919 to the Minister 

of War by Ali Nadir Pacha, commanding 

the 17th Army Corps at Smyrna. 

The victims of the tragic events of Smyrna are the follo- 
wing : Among the superior officers and subalterns : 

Killed : The head of the recruiting office Suleiman Fethy 
Bey, the clerk of the third class of the first section of the Staff 
Nadir Bey, the clerk of the third class of the first section of 
the commissariat Ahmed Hamdi, the regimental secretary 
Fethy Bey, the Lieutenant Major of the second section of 
Commissariat Hussein Nedjati Bey, the head-doctor of the 
Army Corps Lieutenant-Colonel Chukri-Bey, the head-chemist 
captain Ahmed Effendi, the Lieutenant Faik of the engineer 
company and the captain Nazmi of the recruiting office. 

Wounded : The head of the surveying office Colonel Ali 
Bey, of the same office Lieutenant Colonel Djemal Bey, the 
chief of staff Abdul Hamid Bey, the secretaries Sadeddin, 
Zihni, Hairi, Nazim, Akif, Ibrahim, effendis, the Liutenant 
aide de camp Nechet, the colonel in chief of the third division 
Abbas Beys, The aide de camp of the army corps Behaeddin, 
the Captain Nassouhi the Lieutenants Galib and Djemal, the 
Telegraphic-Engineer Selaheddin, the Lieutenant of Commis- 
sariat Zin, the Engineer-Captain Hairi, the Lieutenant atta- 
ched to the staff of the 56th division Rif at and the Lieutenant 
Mehmed Ali Effendis. 

Missing : The cavalry Lieutenant Chukry, the secretary 
Halit, the Captain Mehmed Noury, the Major Houloussy Bey, 
the Lieutenant-aviator Osman, the Lieutenant Disan, Ibrahim 

22 - 



Hakki, Kutchuk Hai'ri, the Battery Commandant Major Aziz, 
the artillery Captain Hassan Fehmi, the artillery Lieutenant 
Surrouri Hairi, Edhem and Halid, the Lieutenants Chukri, 
Hamid, Murteza, Kemal, the adjutant Ali Yaver, the Comman- 
dant of the field howitzers Major Mahmoud Nedim of the same 
Army Corps, the Captains Seid Ali, Djelal, the Lieutenants 
Tewfik and Aziz and Ghalib Effendis. 

Up to now we do not know if those officers are dead or 
alive. I shall not fail to inform you as soon as I receive any 
information about any them. 

Ali Nadir Pacha. 



Report sent to the Commandant General of the 

Gendarmerie at Constantinople by the Officer 

of Commissariat of the Governor General of Smyrna. 

In my quality of officer of Gendarmerie and Commissariat 
of the Governor General of Smyrna, I consider it as a military 
and patriotic duty to set forth to you, herewith, in detail, the 
events which took place in the course of the occupation of 
Smyrna by the Hellenic army, as well as the cruelties and 
injuries of every sort to which our civil and military functi- 
onaries were exposed and especially the officers and men of 
Gendarmerie as well as the Mussulman population including 
women children and old men. 

On the 15th of May at 10 h. in the evening. Admiral Calt- 
hrop sent a note to the Governor-General informing him that 
on the morning of the 16th Smyrna and its surroundings would 
be placed under Greek military occupation. Very early that 
morning indeed, more than twenty transports were to be seen 
which had conveyed the first Hellenic division to the port. 
Thereupon a proclamation was issued written in Turkish and 
in Greek and signed by the Colonel Zaffirion. 

The first detachment of the occupying forces which landed 
on the quay went to occupy the police transport office. The 

23 



policemen and gendarmes who were in this office were conse- 
quently withdrawn and taken back to the offices of the Com- 
mandment of the regiment of gendarmerie. They had scarcely 
arrived when one saw advancing along the quays in the direc- 
tion of the barracks a battalion of Hellenic evzones preceded 
by its Commandant on horseback and followed by an officer 
of lower rank bearing the Hellenic standard. A great number 
of women and children preceded and accompanied this batta- 
lion. The representatives of the Greek army as well as a great 
number of members beloning to the organisation of the "Me- 
gali Idea" (Great Idea) also followed it revolver in hand. The 
crowd like the Greek soldiers passed before the barracks with 
order and in perfect tranquillity. At the moment when they 
were turning the corner of the street and were about two 
hundred meters away from the barracks a report was heard. 
It was one of the individuals armed with a revolver and who 
accompanied the Hellenic battalion who must have fired; he 
may even have done so involuntarily, by accident. However 
that may be the shot spread panic amongst the Hellenic troops 
and, officers and men alike began to free in all directions and 
principally in that from which they had come. The detachment 
which followed them, then took up their position in the garden 
situated between the Governor General's palace and the bar- 
racks and taking for targets the doors and windows of the 
barracks they opened a very heavy fire. It was not returned 
from any side. Nevertheless the fusillade was kept up for more 
than half an hour. Some Turkish women and children who were 
there, seized with terror, had taken refuge in the staircases 
at the entrance of the Banque Agricole, thinking to be more 
or less sheltered from the fusillade; they were massacred 
without pity. Literally streams of blood were flowing down 
the steps of the staircase of the Bank, forming a pool in front 
of the building. 

In the proclamation which he had had posted up early in 
the morning the Commandant of the Hellenic troops of occupa- 
tion invited the administrative and judiciary functionaries to 
continue to exercice their functions as in the past. 

24 



Trusting to the terms of this proclamation all the func- 
tionaries of the Turkish Government were at their post. But 
when they saw the Greek soldiers mounting to the floor of 
the military casino, situated opposite the Government palace, 
and from there direct a lively fusillade on this palace, all those 
people in danger went and grouped themselves instinctively 
round the Governor General to await the course of events. 

The room where the Vali and the functionaries as well as 
the officers of gendarmerie were assembled was hi the part of 
the Konak (the governmental Palace) comparatively the least 
exposed. It was decided to make the Greeks understand by 
means of a white sheet hoisted on the fagade that there was 
no firing from the Konak and that the fusillade should be 
stopped at least on that side. But it was of no avail. The 
firing continued more violently than ever and when at last 
it ceased outside, we suddenly heard shots coming from the 
lower floor of the Governmental Palace. The assailants had 
penetrated into the Konak. But imagining wrongly however 
as we saw only too well later on that there would certainly 
be an officer at the head of these assaillants who could be 
brought to hear reason, we opened wide the doors of the 
Governor General's room and in Greek, we invited the soldiers 
who were already mounting to come in. Two evzones with fixed 
bayonets penetrated into the salon. They were told several 
times that this room was the seat of the Government and that 
the Governor himself was there in person. But the two soldiers 
began to utter threats and insults in Greek and in Turkish and 
ordering us to hold up our hands obliged us all to descend. On 
the staircase outside the room where we were assembled other 
evzones with fixed bayonets had ranged themselves. Everyone 
filed past these brutes. Without regard to their rank even the 
highest functionaries were struck with the butt-ends of guns, 
pricked with bayonets and several were seriously wounded. 

On the lower floor, the Greek soldiers first of all obliged 
the functionaries to trample on their fez and their calpaks 
(headdresses). Those who hesitated had their headdress taken 
off on the points of bayonets. It was thus that many of them 

25 



were wounded in the head and in the face. The native Greeks 
having likewise joined the Hellenic soldiers, the civilian fun- 
ctionaries were for the most part violently beaten with blows 
from guns, pieces of wood or bars of iron. On the pretext of 
looking for arms they were searched, and of course robbed 
of all they had on them. The Hellenic soldiers tore their uni- 
forms from our officers of gendarmerie who were, like the 
others, the object of odious treatment. Encircled by several 
soldiers who guarded them whem with fixed bayonets, all 
those people were conducted to the quay. The were forced at 
the bayont's point to cry : "Zito Venizelos!" With hands up 
and bare heads, this sorry convoy which certainly does no 
honour to the Hellenes who organisel it was thus driven 
along for some time. 

A certain distance had already been traversed, when the 
representative of Greece arrived in a motor-car and took the 
Governor General and his son away with him. The others 
were without rhyme or reason, beaten, insulted, wounded 
with bayonets and even killed. Dragged along the quay, the 
most important thoroughfare of the town, no injury, no 
humiliation was spared to these poor people. The military 
representatives of the Powers of the Entente who were in 
the battle-ships moored in the port, the foreigners and nota- 
bilities inhabiting the buildings on the quay were witnesses 
of these crimes. 

Several of our officers and functionaries disarmed and 
defenceless, escorted by Hellenic detachments were massac- 
red by them under the very eyes of the foreigners. The native 
Greeks, had armed themselves for the occasion with pieces 
of wood, bars of iron, chains and all sorts of insruments of 
violence. When a group of officers under escort arrived in 
front of the customhouse offices the Hellenic regulars and 
the Greek natives fell upon them in a body showering blows 
upon them. The adjutantmajor Nedjati Effendi, was thus 
assassinated with incredible tortures, his son of 8-10 years 
who was with his father that day was dragged along with him 
and witnessed his tragic end. Mad with grief, in convulsions 

26 



of tears, and with cries of anguish he threw himself on the 
bleeding and mangled body of his father. It was a horrible 
sight, the unhappy child also received a bayonet thrust! No 
humane feelings touch a Greek heart, they have given ample 
proof of it. Our officers and our functionaries divided into 
several groups were, during the whole passage from the Ko- 
nak and the barracks to the custom-house offices, the object 
of the coarsest insults from the Greek populace. Greek ladies, 
fashionable members of their high society drew special atten- 
tion by their enthusiasm, and their zeal in uttering the vilest 
insults. They threw whatever they could lay their delicate 
hands on, stones, lumps of earth, broken tiles ete. Some even 
fired revolvers the better to prove that they were the worthy 
wives of the modern Greeks. 

Besides the functionaries and officers all the Turks and 
Mussulmans who were met that day in the streets and in the 
country, little children not excepted, were arrested and impriso- 
ned in different places with the same proceedings. The young 
pupils of the schood Sultanie (high school) situated beside 
the Konak were also imprisoned and victims of the same 
treatment. These unfortunate children were beaten and marty- 
rised in a truly inhuman fashion. All the prisoners were con- 
fined in groups at the Corn Exchange, at the flour depots, 
in empty shops and in cattle depots. They were left for three 
days without food. And when they were set at liberty, several 
amongst them, fathers of families went home to find them- 
selves in presence of a second tragedy. 

The day and the evening when the functionaries and the 
inhabitants were thrown into prison, the native Greeks, led 
by Greek Boy-scouts penetrated into the houses of several 
officers and State employes. Besides pillage in the due form 
no crime was neglected. A Mussulman whose name and add- 
ress are known to us, saw his wife violated before his eyes 
by the Hellenic soldiery. The Mussulman market, as well as 
the Mussulman shops in the quarters inhabited by Christians 
were completely pillaged, the safes broken open and emptied 
of their contents. The offices of the authorities were completely 

27 



ransacked. The drawers of the desks were forced open with 
bayonets all documents destroyed. All the strongboxes belon- 
ging to the different administrations of the State were burst 
open by means of spcial instruments, and their contents stolen. 
Nothing was left. Even pens and inkstands were carried off. 
The morocco arm-chairs which were in the Governor's room 
were cut up in order to carry off the morocco leather. All the 
telephone apparatus were destroyed or rendered useless. All 
the furniture of the barracks was thrown out of the windows, 
and so broken as to be of no use. 

Moreover during this fatal day the Greeks massacred 
all the isolated policemen and gendarmes in the interior or 
exterior of the town. A fortnight after these events several 
dead bodies were still washed up by the sea. The decomposed 
bodies of three policemen, bound together by chains passed 
round their necks, were thrown up by the waves upon the 
quay du pare, opposite the Government Palace. This occurrence 
attracted serious attention. 

At the place called Boz-yaka nine persons, and at Seidi- 
Keuy and its vicinity several Mussulmans whose exact number 
has not yet been ascertained, were massacred and their remains 
left for several days without burial. No Mussulman dared to 
bury them. 

The Colonel Suleiman Fethy Bey, president of the rec- 
ruiting Commission of the 4th Army Corps, the Vice-Major 
Nedjati as well as Thasin Redjeb Bey, proprietor of the 
newspaper Houkoukou-Becher (The Rights of Man) who was 
cut to pieces on the quay itself are the principal martyrs of 
note known to us. Amongst the killed there are many others 
of our co-religionists whose identity has not yet been estab- 
lished. There are besides many who were killed by stray bullets. 

I should fail in my duty if I did not inf orm you of a regret- 
table observation that I made in the course of these events. 
As I have already said, all these crimes and offences were 
perpetrated in broad day-light under the eyes of thousands 
of foreigners of the diplomatic and military representatives 

28 



of the Entente The Amarican officers rode about on horseback 
all over the town, and were like many others eye-withnesses 
of all the ignoble acts of which these people were guilty. I 
regret to state that not even by a gesture did they do anything 
to prevent them. 

The 6th. June 1919. 



Report of the Turksh Military Commission at 

Smyrna addressed to the Ministry of 

War at Constantinople 

I have the honour of communicating to you herewith a 
summary of the regrettable events of Smyrna : 

1. A violent fusillade having been directed by the Greek 
troops landed at Smyrna, against the fagade of the barracks, 
the Turkish officers and soldiers who had assembled there 
according to the instructions of Admiral Calthrop, took refuge 
in the passages and shltered parts of the barracks. After 
numerous difficulties, to prove that they had no intention of 
defending themselves, all the officers of the army corps were 
led in a convoy to the Greek transport "Patris". During the 
walk which we were obliged to take along the quay, pursued 
by the hoots and jeers of the Greek populace, many officers 
and soldiers were killed or wounded by shots fired by Greek 
soldiers and civilians, as the commandant of the Army-Corps 
has informed Your Excellency in detail. 

The same day more than seven hundred civilians, tra- 
desman and others, who had been arrested by the Greek mili- 
tary authorities in different quarters of Smyrna, either in 
the streets or in the hotels, inns or shops, were also brought 
on board the same ship and imprisoned in the hold. 

The Commandant AH Nadir Pacha, his chief of staff, the 
Major Abdul Hamid Bey, the Commandant of the 56th division 
Hussein Bey and the Lieutenant Enver Bey, the Commandant's 

29 



officer of Commissariat, were released at six o'clock in the 
afternoon. 

n. The next day the Greek Colonial Zafirion, Commandant 
of the Hellenic troops of occupation came on board the "Patris" 
and asked to speak with one of the imprisoned officers in order \ 
to inquire into the incident which had taken place the day \ 
before; I volunteered to present myself to him. Here is the ; 
summary of our conversation : : : 

1. "After having received me very courteously, he told 
me that the chief cause of the incident had been that we had 
fired from the barracks with the intention of defending it, 
upon the Greek companies advancing in marching order and 
that the soldier on the right wing of the first company was 
mortally wounded. He said that the bravery of the Turkish 
army was well known, and that during the Balkan-war having 
been continually in contact with it, he had appreciated its 
fighting value and its virtues and made me a heap of comp- 
liments on this subject. He said next that he had occupied 
Smyrna on the decision of the Powers of the Entente and that 
the Greeks and the Mussulmans ought by their respective 
situations to live on brotherly terms whether in Greece or in 
Turkey; he added that he sincerely regretted the incidents 
that had taken place and that he was very much affected 
by them. 

"I then replied, that the commandant of the army corps 
had received the night before the notice of Admiral Calthrop 
and that he had immediately informed the subaltern authori- 
ties of it : that he had ordered the battalion (Bat. 2. Regiment 
133) which was at Pounta and all the officers then in Smyrna 
to assemble at the barracks by 5 o'clock in the morning and 
at the same tune, had taken measures to prevent the occur- 
rences of any incidents. 

"We saw indeed, said I, that a battalion of evzones ad- 
vanced from the direction of the landing-place of the Hellenic 
troops, and that the three companies of this battalion had 
already passed the barracks and turning round it, had even 

30 



i taken the street of the tramway leading to Kokar-Yali; the 
;head of this detachment had already reached the Banque 
Agricole when a shot went off from the direction of the Greek 
*$ crowd massed opposite the Konak and the barracks, fired by 
fig an unknown, who surely could only be a Greek. The companies 
11^ which followed this detachment immediately spread out in 
J the rear, and having taken up a position near the Park, opened 
|f a steady fire on the barracks. In consequence, if you say the 
i^ van-guard of the battalion advancing towards the barracks 
!||had been fired upon, the three companies of this battalion 
^5 would not have turned round it to take the tranmway road. 
9On the contrary the first company exposed would have taken 
up position and opened fire. 

2. Admitting that the occupants of the barracks had 
si made use of their arms to defend it, their bullets should have 
!S left traces in the Park where your soldiers had taken up their 
B position. 

3. The Turkish officers, setting aside their military tech- 
finical instruction, have acquired during these five years of 
Hwar, a great experience in innumerable combats on the various 

fronts. Can one believe that any Turkish officer would attempt 
la such an illogical and mad adventure as to defend the barracks 
H built near the sea, against a force of twelve thousand men, 

jfi having their armaments, munitions and equipment complete? 
^H 

All the more that an Entente fleet was in the port of 
|1 Smyrna precisely to support the Hellenic forces advancing 
|H towards the barracks and ready to second them. It is very 
I natural that under these conditions no Turkish officer should 
sever have dreamt of defending the barracks. We also regret 
these events and are as much affected by them as you can 
j be; considering especially that the other allied detachments 
which occupied the fortified regions of the town the day before 
I effected their landing quietly whereas the occupation of 
i Smyrna by the Greek troops was followed by these incidents. 

"I thank you for your kind remarks respecting the Tur- 
kish army, I said to him. We also, during the different cam- 

31 



paigns in which we had occasion to come in contact with the 
Greek army, had the opportunity of appreciating the moral 
and humanitarian merits of its officers and soldiers; we were 
all convinced of its quality, as a civilised army. Therefore we 
were painfully surprised at the inhuman and unworthy con- 
duct of your officers and soldiers towards ours, brought yes- 
terday, surrounded by bayonets, from the barracks to this 
ship. The Turkish officers while deploring that the Hellenic 
authorities should have let themselves go to such excesses, 
trust that you will not fail to repair immediately this incorrec- 
tion". 

With these words I left the Commandant of the Hellenic 
army of occupation. Having been again summoned later on. 
I went to him once more on board a small tug sent specially to 
the "Patris" to bring me. Our second conversation turned 
solely on the liberation of the officers and soldiers detained 
on board the "Patris". The mode of their liberation was thus 
decided and I was able to insure the transfer to the barracks 
by a tug which was to be sent the next day for all the officers 
and soldiers. So that four days after the incidents of Smyrna 
the officers could be transfered to the barracks and those 
who were married could go home. 

All the safes belonging to the army corps or to the contin- 
gents and different services of the army corps which were 
in the barracks, having been ransacked and their contents 
rifled and moreover the money, watches, and other valuables 
which the officers had on them having been stolen by the 
Greek soldiers at the moment of their imprisonment, the Turk- 
ish officers, married or not, found themselves in a state of 
complete destitution. Consequently we were obliged to dist- 
ribute among them, for their most pressing needs, a certain 
sum that the army corps possessed at the Bank. 

The third day after their transfer, the officers who were 
obliged to report themselves at the Greek barracks every day, 
were suddenly prevented by the Greek soldiers from coming 
out once they had gone in. All who heard this news would 

32 



not come to the barracks any more. They were sought out, 
arrested and brought by force to the Greek military authorities, 
and a second day of insults was thus imposed on the Turkish 
officers. 

Meanwhile I had another personal interview with the com- 
mandant of the occupying forces. It was decided that the 
unmarried officers and soldiers should be sent to Moudania 
on board Greek transport, and that five days should be given 
to the married ones to prepare their departure for the same 
destination. This was carried out. The families of the officers 
martyrized during the Smyrna incidents were also aided by 
us in a private manner. 

m. The commission left at Smyrna for the services of 
the army corps is composed of three persons, but owing to the 
overwhelming amount of work it is necessary to increase the 
number. Unfortunately all our applications to the Greek com- 
mandant on this subject remained without effect. Our Com- 
mission has many difficulties to contend with in the accom- 
plishment of its task. Amongst others it is impossible for us 
to put our hands on the stores of provisions and of equipments 
as well as on the industrial and other institutions of the army 
corps. We have made serious applications to the Greek autho- 
rities by the intermedium of the English, for the handing 
over of these stores and institutions. We have only been able 
to obtain in this manner those which were in the barracks 
itself. We managed thus, under the superintendence of the 
English, to distribute a few provisions to the families of the 
martyrised officers. 

All the official registers, the account-books and other 
documents were ransacked, destroyed and burnt by the Greek 
soldiers when these incidents took place. I try to collect at least 
the remains of them. I shall sent you shortly the list of all 
that had been pillaged, destroyed or stolen by the Greeks. 

IV. A detailed list of the sums stolen from the safes has 
been handed to the allied representatives, to the Governor of 
Smyrna and to the Greek Commandant. Another list of all the 

33 



money and objects stolen from the officers by the Greek sol- 
diers has also been remitted to the allied representatives. The 
animals belonging to the contingents of cavalry and artillery 
of the army corps were collected by the Greeks in the court 
of the barracks and were nearly dying of starvation. Steps 
have been taken for their maintenance. 

The list of robberies performed by the Greeks is sent you 
herewith. 

Kindly accept etc... 

(signed) Lientenant Colonel Suleyman FEHMY, 
Chief of Commissariat of the XVUth Corps. 



Summary of the enclosed list. 

The Greeks have pillaged 20 safes belonging to the dif- 
ferent services of vthe army corps. Have been noted : 

Piastres 5.809.728.15 in receipts, 

17.240.093.25 in bank notes, 

17.269.20 in copper money, 

16.605. in silver money, 

59.027.20 in gold. 

That is in all, money to the value of 23 millions, 142 thou- 
sand 690 piasters and a quarter. Which amounts in round figu- 
res to 5 millions 250 thousand francs. 



Extracts from the report of a delegate of the 
Ottoman League. 

The day of the occupation, the Greek soldiers after having 
wounded and killed two unfortunate women in front of the 
barracks drove into the Government Buildings eight hundred 
functionaries and Turkish inhabitants of the town. Then they 

-34,- 



put them in ranks and marched them though the town, loading 
them with blows and insults and forcing them to shout "Long 
live Venizelos". Those who refused to do so were killed on the 
spot. Amongst the number they noticed that Colonel Suleiman 
Fethi Bey, head of the military division of the IXthe Army 
Corps refrained from shouting. They reported the -order to 
him and on his refusal to obey pierced and cut him to pieces 
with their bayonets, on the quay before thousands of spec- 
tators. During the march they took the purses, watches and 
other valuables of all the Turks who made up the sad processi- 
on. All these people were imprisoned in the building of the 
Exchange. The number of Turks arrested on the most futile 
pretexts the firts day of the occupation amounted to 26.000 
persons. 

The day of the occupation a sergeant and four Turkish 
soldiers wearing the armlet of the Red Crescent were arrested 
by the Greek soldiers. Dragged before the great building of the 
Oriental Carpet, they were pierced from behind with bayonets 
and killed under the eyes of hundreds of foreigners massed 
in the streets and at the windows. The sergeant is a Turkish 
chemist well known in the town. This murder is recorded in 
the report sent to his Government by the English Colonel 
Lymping, who went himself to the house of the poor victimized 
chemist and gave 50 Turkish pounds to his family and children. 

At the time of the massacre of the Turks at Menemen 
by the Greeks, the English Colonel Smith was going from 
Constantinople to Smyrna. Having heard the outeries, he got 
out of the train and accompanied by two English soldiers went 
into the town; he arrived just in time to see the Greeks in the 
act of massacring. The Greeks pretended that a rising of the 
population had obliged them to act thus; but none in the 
town was armed, except the four gendarmes and the governor 
whose bodies were lying in front of the government building. 
The Greeks had two whole battalions against these four armed 
gendarmes. The reports of the international inquiry commission 
and of the American doctors confirm this fact. They only 

found eleven wounded to treat as against 759 Turkish corpses 

i 

35 



and they did not scruple to call the Greeks' attention to this 
revolting disroportion. 

The day of the occupation about fifteen Greek ruffians 
and soldiers penetrated into the house of the former secretary 
general of the province and violated one after the other his 
wife and his two daughters. The same disaster overtook the 
former commandant of the port Sinan Bey. 

, If personages so highly placed suffered such treatment 
one can easily imagine what was the lot of persons of less 
importance. 

One hears frequently at Smyrna the inedited accounts of 
numerous similarly ignominious actions. 



The Mussulman Defence League (33, Palace Street, 

Westminster) forwards to the Ottoman League by the 

intermedium of the Anglo-Ottoman Society of 

London, the following letter from a British 
officer who was witness of the events in Smyrna. 

"Smyrna, May 21st, 1919. 

"I am writing to you about affairs in Turkey. I hope you 
may be able to get friends in the House to ask questions about 
the perfectly scandalous happening at Smyrna when the Greek 
troops landed. I arrived at Smyrna the following day, and had 
plenty of evidence, both English and Turkish, of what had 
been going on. 

"The Turkish authorities issued a General Order the day 
before landing instructing all officials to see no resistance was 
offered, and troops and officers were ordered to be at certain 
barracks at a certain time, which was also named for handing 
9ver G. H. Q. 

"The Order seems to have been obeyed, but the Greek 
troops broke into some of the places where Turkish officers 
were gathered and shot down all who refused to cry Zeto Ve- 

36 



nizelos. I am told that between 200 and 300 officials were 
killed, but am not able to substantiate the statemant as to 
numbers. * 

"Officers were stripped of their uniforms by Greek sol- 
diers and left in their shirts and pants. Their boots the soldiers 
put on themselves. The Vali was dragged along the quay with 
his hands up and carried prisoner on board a Greek ship. His 
fez was taken off and trampled under foot. 2 His wife (a pur- 
dah lady) was hurt and his house looted. The Chief of the 
Turkish Staff was bayoneted in the face and thrown into the 
hold of a Greek cattle ship, among the aminals. 3 The senior 
doctor of the Turkish Army Corps was murdered and on Mon- 
day last the body had not been found. 4 The Chief of the Artil- 
lery was also murdered his brother, a young doctor, was 
robbed of everything, even to his wedding ring; he showed 
me the mark made to get it off, and said in some cases fingers 
had been cut to remove rings. 5 His wife, though a Russion, 
was robbed of everything too. 



1 The Bureau is in possession of a list, which though incomplete con- 
tains the names of nearly a hundred superior officers and others. The Turkish 
military authorities not having the means at present of making inquiries on the 
spot, the names of many officers who were at Smyrna on garrison duty or on 
leave and who were assassinated by the Greeks do not figure on the list. 
Similarly the Police and Gendarmerie agents and officers especially marked 
down by these assasins are not quoted. The number of three hundred reported 
in the letter of the English officer is thus below the reality. 

2 The General AM Nadir Pacha, commanding the Turkish army corps un- 
derwent the same treatment, without regard for his uniform or his rank. He 
was struck by a Greek soldier in the open street. We particularly draw attention 
to this fact. It denotes the degree of discipline and the chivalrous spirit of 
this horde. 

3 Lieutenant-Colonel Abdul-Hamid Bey. 

4 The doctor Lieutenant-Colonel Chukri Bey, His body attached to a stone 
was thrown into the sea and only recovered twelve days later, that is after 
the publication of the English officer's letter. 

6 Several commandants of artillery were killed or disappeared. Probably 
this letter refers to Major Mahomed Nedim Bey. commandant of the heavy 
artillery and who was assassinated in a cowardly manner. 

37 



"A Turkish lieutenant-colonel, whom I met at the hos- 
pital, told me he hadn't the price of a meal letf in the house 
every stick of furniture had been taken his wife looted of 
every scrap of jewellery she had on. 

"These are only a few cases I saw myself everywhere 
it has been the same. In the villages not only have the houses 
been looted, but burnt and pulled down 6 In the better-class 
houses, which were too solid to pull down, doors and windows 
have been removed, and in some cases the roofs. 

"What the Allied Fleet was doing to allow this sort of 
thing to go on I don't understand; for the Greeks, both mili- 
tary and civil, took a hand in it and it was not until they 
were attacked that the Turks showed fight. The Greeks claim 
that Smyrna is Greek as a matter of ^ fact, Christians are 
in a majority here, but not Greek Christians. Of Ottoman 
Greeks and Ottoman Turks there are more Ottoman Turks. 

"In other places, such as Manissa, which I understand 
Greeks are to occupy, four-fifths of the population is Moslem. 

"There are a few purely Greek villages near Smyrna, but 
the population as a whole is Moslem. Can nothing be done to 
get a Commission of Inter-Allied Commissioners, who know 
the country, sent to report on the population? 

"If Mr. Wilson's idea of self-determination is to be applied 
it should be applied to this country as to any other. The people 
should be allowed to select their mandatory if it is consi- 
dered absolutely necessary to separate them from Turkey. 

"Also there are British and other foreign rights to be 
considered in Smyrna. Under the system of capitulation and 
extraterritorial rights enjoyed by foreigners in this country, 
they have built up a very flourishing commercial community, 



6 Whole villages were thus sacked or razed to the ground. At Biroun- 
Abad, for instance, a charming suburb of Smyrna, inhabited by the English 
Colony, most of the Turkish houses were pillaged under the eyes of the English. 
Djouma Ovassi, in the neighourhood of Boudja, another suburb of Smyrna, 
Gueuredje and many others were completely devasted. 

38 



of which some of the leading houses are British. Are we, who 
spent muchblood and treasure hi the conquest of Turkey, to 
allow our own nationals to be ruined by Greek misrule? It 
is a known fact that in Greece itself British houses have been 
unable to succeed. 

"In Turkey taxation is light in Greece taxation simply 
kills everything. Is it right that the commercial community 
should be exploited for the benefit of Greece? Also what 
about the Indian Army? What will the Moslem section of it 
say when they learn that they and their friends have fought 
and died to hand over a large number of their brother Moslems 
to their bitterest foes and the most fanatical people who call 
themselves Chistians? As I am serving I am not allowed to 
write to the papers, and I have very few friends who know 
or care anything about Turkey, and, of course, the country 
is hi disgrace for her misdeeds. But still one would like to see 
justice done, and if you have any friends who can do anything 
to wake up public opinion do try and get them interested. It 
certainly won't make for peace to leave this place in Greek 
hands without a most stringent control of some sort." 

From a British Officer. 



Note from the League : 

Theree questions were in fact put in the House of Com- 
mons by the members Aubrey Herbert and Kenworthy hi reply 
to which Mr. Harmsworth, under secretary of State at the 
Foreign Office, recognised in principle the justice of the accu- 
sations brought against the Greeks and promised to make an 
official inquiry. 

It was in consequence of this declaration and the comp- 
laints made by the Schikk ul Islam that an interallied inquiry 
Commission was appointed to go and study the matter on the 
spot; that the general Paroskevopoulos was recalled from 
Smyrna and that superior Greek officers were condemned 
before the Commission had even begun its work. 

39 



Note from the Bureau : 

The commission in question having, after an impartial 
inquiry, finished its work, presented its report to the Supreme 
Council. In this report the interallied Commission affirms the 
authenticity of the Turkish version and all the ignoble Greek 
misdeeds and declaring the landing to be quite without reason 
it begged the Supreme Council to order the evacuation of 
Smyrna. 



M. Pierre Loti communicated to the Ottamon League the 
following personal letter which he received from ona 

of his comrades of the French Navy, referring 

to the landing of the Greeks at Smyrna : he adds 

that all the other French officers relate this incident 

with the same indignation but that the censor 

forbids its publication in France : 

"On the 15th of May, at 7 h. 30 in the morning, the Greek 
battle-ships Averoff and Limmos, followed by several trans- 
port vessels anchored before Smyrna, and without any notice 
of this strong measure having been given to the Ottoman 
authorities, the Hellenic troops began to disembark, under 
the command of the Colonel Zaphiriote. These troops were 
composed of a regiment of evzones and of the 40th and 50th 
infantery. 

An immense crowd had assembled on the quays. The 
Metropolitan had thought it his duty to come and stir up the 
enthusiasm of the ortodox populace by religious manifesta- 
tions of a doubtful opportuness. 

The Turks meanwhile had opposed no resistance to the 
landing, their troops remaining shut up in the barracks. But 
they had prepared long beforehand the little incident which 
wasto permit "the proud conquerors" to give themselves up 
with impunity to long premeditated cruelties upon the Mus- 
sulman population. How could this desired incident fail to 
be produced? 

40 



The hired instigators were all at their posts, and to make 
still more sure, the Hellenic Red Cross had armed the two 
most ignoble bands of comitadjis in Macedonia, and these had 
been transported to Asia-Minor by Greek tropedo-boats. It 
is established by the reports of the different authorities that 
the Greek brigands of Smyrna, who had come to welcome 
the Hellenic forces and had encircled them, all carried revolvers 
openly. Whether intentionally or accidentally a shot was 
fired from their ranks, causing an indescribable panic among 
the "proud conquerors" newly landed, the brave evzones 
fleeing in all directions firing shots, which increased the di- 
sorder. It was then that other Greek troops who followed the 
first contingents opened fire against the undefended Turkish 
barracks. In spite of all the signals that were made to them, 
in spite of the white flag immediately hoisted, the Greeks 
continued to fire on the Turkish officers disarmed the day 
before. 

By dint of provocation and blustering they managed to 
make the Turks lose patience ; a few shots fired or said to 
have been fired from their ranks, gave the expected signal 
for the massacre. The Greeks rushed upon the barracks whose 
occupants were killed or wounded. 

On the quays the Turkish women are unveiled, insulted. 
The Greeks ery out to the Mussulmans : "I... thy prophet and 
thy religion". The word "Nayeow" is frequently on the lips 
of the Greks. They are obliged to take off their fez and trample 
them under foot. If they refuse, they are thrown into the sea 
or run through with bayonet. 

In their blind fury, the Greeks massacre abount fifteen of 
their compatriots who wear the Ottoman fez in their quality 
of functionaries; they assassinate the French station-master, 
two Italians and an English subject ete. 

The Hellenic commander having decreed a state of siege, 
murder and pillage are henceforth under the protection of 
armed force. The 40th regiments hasten to imitate them. 
The Turk are imprisoned in a body and their houses sacked. 

41 



But the Greek do not attack only the property of the Mus- 
sulmans; they pillage the depot of the Ottoman Bank, the 
storehouse of the French-Consulate etc. 

They went so far as to give arms to the Palikares in other 
words to the bandits who form the Greek populace of Smyrna. 
They gave them to their wives too, and the latter used them 
to outrage the corpses of the Turks, piled up at the Ottoman 
hospital. 

The streets continue to be the scene of every crime and 
cowardly deed imaginable. 

An old Turkish Colonel, ill and quasi impotent, is encoun- 
tered by the Palikares (taht is to say bravas); he is riddled 
with bayonet wounds. At the gates of the town, three unarmed 
gendarmes are driving home peaceably, quite unaware of what 
is going on in Smyrna : they are massacred with every refine- 
ment of cruelty. 

In another place, an officer of our navy sees a Greek 
patrol leading away an old man, a corporal striking him on 
the head with the butt end of his gun. 

"Why are you striking an old disarmed man like that? 
he asked the corporal." 

"Because he is a dangerous man. Arms were found in 
his house." 

"What arms?" ' 

It turned out that these arms consisted of 200 grammes 
of small shot, 100 grammes of shooting powder and two empty 
cartridge cases! 

Sometimes, Mars must give place to Mercury. As patrols 
were circulating in the streets, honest Greeks would offer to 
guide them to the house of such and a dangerous man. whom 
they would indicate. As this dangerous man, by some happy 
chance, always turns out to be the credifor of his denouncer, 
his account is soon settled. 

42 - 



Meanwhile the Turks who had been taken prisoners, 
receive nothing to eat or drink. English officers going to visit 
them, protest against this inhumanity. Alarmed the Greek 
military authoreties allow the Turkish women to carry food to 
the captives; when they present themselves with their provi- 
sions, Greek youths jeer at them, unveil them and only let 
them pass if they carry in their hands a paper flag with the 
glorious colours of the Hellenes. 

Such is the truth about the ambuscade of Smyrna, and 
we hope that it will be brought to light in spite of all those 
who gain by its being hidden under a bushel. The balance sheet 
of the entry of the Greeks into Smyrna amounts to 300 Turks 
dead and 600 wounded. 

This is how the French papers relate this memorable day : 

"The Greek troops landed at Smyrna in the midst of uni- 
versal enthusiasm." 

However the enthusiasm of the first moment beginning 
to cool down the commander of the Hellenic, troops began to 
wonder if in spite of the blind philhellenism of the Entente, 
the affair of Smyrna might not revolt the public, if the latter 
came to know what had taken place. So it thought it wise to 
forestall its critics, and published an order blaming the con- 
duct of "some vagabonds" to whom the Council of War would 
see that justice was done. We are quite certain that these vaga- 
bonds have nothing to fear either from the rope or the gallows, 
richly as they have deserved them, and that on the contrary, 
they will henceforth live honoured and free from care. 

The events of Smyrna, wrote the Turkish journal "Hdissat" 
on this subject, have shown that Greece is not only incapable 
of undertaking a mandate over another country but that she 
herself needs to be controlled". 

If we wish to know the opinion of an Armenian who can 
hardly be suspected of a great partiality for the Turks, this 
is how he appreciates the exploits of the descendants of 
Pericles. 

43 



"We have often been assassinated, says he naively but 
never have the Turks treated us as the Greeks have treated 
them and never have they insulted our beliefs in such a manner. 

Let us leave the final word to the chief of one of the divi- 
sions of the squadron, whose report concludes thus : 

"The conduct of the Greeks was ignoble." 



44 



The Events of Magnesie. 



To Their Excellencies the High Commissioners of 

Grat Britain, of the United States of America, 

of Italy and of France at Constantinople. 

The atrocities of all kinds undergone daily by our fellow 
citizens living in the Hellenic zone of occupation, reach a pitch 
which ought to make the most blase shudder with indignation. 
Upon the most absurd pretexts the Greek court-martials judge 
and condemn to death numerous Turks. The abominations 
which took place, when the Greek troops entered Manissa 
(Magnesia), still continue worse than ever. Forcing functi- 
onaries who are not blinded by any partiality naturally observe 
these doings and make a note of them. 

To give only a few examples of the crimes of the Greeks, 
we shall cite the following facts. 

M. Moustapha Bey, son of Chukri Bey, one of the notabi- 
lities of Manissa, was assassinated in a cowardly manner, his 
body was found outside the town. 

M. Memmed Bey, flour merchant, met the same tragic end. 
His body also was recovered at some distance from the town 
at Kirtick. 

Behlul Hassan, of Molla Chaban and his five companions 
who were going to work in their vineyards were arrested and 
beaten by Greek soldiers. After having undergone various 
tortures the unfortunates were shut up in the underground 
dungeon of the central police station of Osmanie at Manissa 
and remained there, without bread or water for three days. The 
Greeks wished to banish Behlul Hassan and his friends from 
the occupied zone and send them to Panderma. But having 

45 



neither the physical strength nor the pecuniary means neces- 
sary for this journey, they took refuge at Ak-Hissar; and 
reported with tears in their eyes the odious treatment which 
they had suffered from the Hellenes. 

A notability, Mehmed Bey Bachzade, was severely beaten 
and is still confined to bed. 

The day of the perquisition of arms were also beaten 
with incredible violence : M. Hussein Adanali Zade, notability 
of Manissa, Kiamil Mufti Zade, notability, Ibrahim Mufti 
Zadee deputy major, Bolghour Hussein, Kadri Ghiritli Zade. 

This last grievously wounded in the head fainted. The 
Greeks thinking him dead, turned out his pockets, stole his 
money, (500 p. Tk. and besides sacked his house. Kadri Ghritli 
Zade is now undergoing treatment at the hospital of Smyrna. 

We add to the present letter a list containing the names 
of other notabilities and intellectuals of the country who were 
arrested without any plausible reason. 

So many crimes committed, so many tortures inflicted 
naturally exasperated in the highest degree the Mussulman 
inhabitants of our commune. Nevertheless the latter, giving 
proof of the noble character of the Turkish nation, preserve 
a patience truly most wonderful. But it is to be feared that 
the continuation of the Hellenic atrocities may overexcite 
public opinion and finaly oblige the Mussulmans to abandon 
their passive attitude. The responsibility of such a rising could 
therefore only be imputed to the Greeks alone. 

We protest then energetically and with indignation aga- 
inst the doings of the Hellenic army which since its landing, 
has not ceased a moment from perpetrating the most unheard 
of abominations. 

In the name of justice and humanity we adjure the Great 
Powers to use their authority to order the evacuation of our 
beloved country, that we could never bear to see submitted, 
even temporarily, to foreign domination. 

Follow 60 signatures... 



46 



VIOLATED MOSQUES 

All the mosques and religious institutions of Menissa, num- 
bering about 150, have been violated by the Greek army, their 
doors were forced in and their floors torn up, their carpets 
stolen or soiled, their windows broken and their inside walls 
defaced. The worst damaged mosques of the town are the 
following : 

Servili mesdjid. Gune djami. 

Tchatal djami. Dilchikar. 

Kenzi djami. Dere mesdjid. 

Mouradie. Nifli Zade. 

Ak mesdjid. Hadjdja-djlar. 
Ayvaz Pacha djami. 

The convents Kenzi, and Kabak Hadje. 

The schood of Theology Sinan and the cemetery Tehatal, 
Kabristan, are violated, defiled and deteriorated. 



Telegram from the Deputy-Governor of Ak-Hissar 
dated 3rd July 1919. 

In the night of the seventh instant, Halid Pacha and five 
of his friends who were in a farm, were killed in a tragie 
fashion by a detachment of Greek troops, reinforced by con- 
siderable forces drawn from the neighbouring Greek villages. 
The body of Halid Pacha had been severed in two, and bore 
thirty-seven wounds inflicted with knives and bayonets, his 
fingers had been cut off and his eyes put out. His friends 
had their cars and noses cul off, and their eyes put out. The 
goods found on the premises, as well as the implements had 
been pillaged and the farm then set on fire. The bodies of 
Halid Pacha and of his friends so tragically assasinated were 
taken to the chief town of the Gaza to be buried. Besides this 
event I have also to inform you that fifteen women of the 
neighbourhood of Ghediz-Tchai who were going to then: work 
were also assassinated and their bodies thrown into the river. 

47 



The Massacres of Bergamo 
and of Menemen 

Memorial upon events of Bergamo. 

The Greek contingent advancing in the direction of Mene- 
men occupied without resistance, on the 12th June, the town 
of Bergamo and the overlooking heights. 

The commandant of this small detachment having given 
assurances that the Hellenic Government assumed the moral 
and material responsibility for any losses and ill-treatment 
which might be caused to the population, private persons as 
well as functionaries continued to go about their business. 

On the application of the local Government a Turkish 
gendarme was attached to be the Greek military patrols 
charged with the preservation of order in the town. Although 
all went normally during the actual occupation, the Greek 
soldiers, the officers setting the example, began from the first 
days to perpetrate crimes, pillages, and assaults on Turkish 
women. 

The day following the occupation, they killed Mehmed 
Emm, mountar of the village of Tekely, half an hour's dis- 
tance from Bergamo and carried off the cattle they found 
in the village and in the neighbourhood of Bergamo; they 
sequestered and took possession of all the cereals belonging 
to the population and destroyed what they conld not take. 
A patrol of Greek soldiers fell upo nthe farm of Touzdji Mo- 
ustapha near the town and pillaged his furniture, carried off 
his cattle and destroyed his crops. Near the town they killed, 
riddling them with bayonets, four unfortunates whose identity 

48 



could not be established so terribly were they disfigured. Some 
Greek soldiers arrested Abdurrahman Agha who was going 
to his fields and extorted from him 180 Turkish pounds in 
bank notes; 30 pounds in gold were stolen from one person 
and the ring from another. 

In the villages of Tcham-keuy and Sendel the women 
were assaulted and all the cattle .belonging to the peasants 
stolen. 

In presence pf these ignominies the population telegraphed 
on the 15th. June to the representatives of the Entente at 
Smyrna and demanded justice and protection. No reply was 
received. 

'Then oppression and tyranny began to be exercised with 
more force than ever. Bands of Greek brigands, who had 
accompanied the troops or had landed at Ayazmend, Dikili 
and elsewhere, began to pillage all the surrounding villages, 
carried off all the animals or anything else they found and 
them to Metelin. 

Following on these events the population of Bergamo, 
whose lives and honour were threatened, rose in a body and 
in spite of inferior numbers and the precarious state of its 
arms succeeded in driving out the Greek battalion, which 
had to leave hurriedly in confusion. The glorious Hellenic sol- 
diers then took revenge by massacring the innocent inhabi- 
tants, by destroying the Turkish villages, on their line of 
retreat. More than two thousand Mussulmans were thus assas- 
sinated. 

The day after the Greek retreat from Bergamo a force of 
four thousand bandits was landed from Metelin, at Dikili where . 
it first killed several hundred Mussulmans; amongst others 
the well known merchant Faik, the telegraph director Assim, 
the stock-broker Ali and his son Halil, the Arnavoud Sadi ete. 

This force marched on Bergamo pillaging, sacking, mas- 
sacring all on its way. Thus the villages Kiriklar, Saghandji. 
Sakkeuy, Kalarhga, Tcham-keuy, Aladjalar, Tekely, Sendel 

49 



were devastated to such a point that even their sites were 
undiscoverable and all their inhabitants, even to the babies 
in the cradles, were put to the sword. 

The population of Bergamo, on their approach fled to 
Soma; the old and infirm who could not leave in time were 
massacred without pity. On entering the town the Greek ban- 
dits set fire to it both ends, and then advanced towards Tou- 
ranli setting fire on their way to the villages of Kachikdji and 
Dundarly and massacring their inhabitants. They pillaged all 
the depost, sheds, shops and other places and sent all the 
objects to Metelin. 

The Greek soldiers who occupied the caza of Bergamo 
were led by their officers and committed all these offences 
and crimes under their orders. Neither sex, age nor illness 
could prevent their brutality Several Greeks violated a woman 
of sixty five years with the sole object of dishonouring her, 
while her grand daughter of twelve years succumbed with 
pain under the same outrages from a swarm of brutes. 

They bombarded from a distance villages that they had 
not had the time to burn, and the Greek artillery had also 
its share of glory in this ignoble brigandage. Amongst others 
the villages of Achaghi Bey, Djengue, Djoumali, Keutsche- 
Beyli, Youkary Bey and many others were destroyed in this 
manner. 

Thus the population of the seven communes and 183 villa- 
ges of the caza to the number of 80.000 souls had to flee to 
the rugged regions of the interior, to the mountains, where 
in frightful distress they are now undergoing the most 
dreadful misery. 

This is what the civilising Hellenic occupation has cost 
the caza of Bergamo.. 

_ 50 _ 



EXTRACTS FROM A REPORT 
ADDRESSED TO THE COMMISSION OF INQUIRY 

Some details concerning the Greek atrocities in the 
surroundings of Bergamo and Aivalik. 

First Occupation : 

1. The first day of the occupation, half an hour after the 
entry inlo Bergamo of the Greek forces, five cavalry and 
twenty foot-soldiers sent to Sepalti immediately killed the 
major Mehmed Emm and took possesion of all the live-stock 
of the village. 

2. The first day of the occupation likewise, Houloussi, 
son of Kardji Mehmed who was in the Selimie cafe, was arres- 
ted and taken before the commandant of the troops of occu- 
pation. The corpse of this man was found the third day hi 
front of the offices of the battalion. The head was severed 
from the trunk and the eyes put out. 

3. Kurd Hussein of the village of Achaghi Kiriklar was 
killed for no reason and his home pillaged. 

4. A'icha, wife of Ismail, inhabitant of Bergamo, as well 
as one of her friends was outraged with violence. 

5. Two little girls, refugees from Salonica, were violated 
in a part of Bergamo called Pigmenie. 

6. The second day of the occupation, in the plain of Arabli 
situated in the neighbourhood of Bergamo, the Greek soldiers 
pillaged the property of Touzdjou Moustapha Effendi, and 
killed all the live-stock. They fired shots at the proprietor 
but he was able to escape unhurt. 

7. They destroyed the carriage of Ahmed Effendi, part- 
ner of Hadji Niazi Effendi and killed his horses which were 
burnt with the debris of the carriage. 

8. Were killed for no reason. Djafer, son of the Weli of 
the quarter of Tchakirlar : Kementeli Mehmed, Haireddin, son 

51 



of Ibrahim Ousla : Pacha Zade Ibrahim : hte shoemaker 
Moustapha, native of Alaiye; the tailor Moustapha, native 
of Kozak; Ali of the village of Okdjilar, Ibrahim, son Ali Effen- 
di of the quarter Hadji Ilias, Hadji Mehmed of the quarter 
of Atmadji and Aicha wife of Molla Hussein. 

9. Were assasinated Hassan Oglou of the village of Kor- 
kalli and Mehmed Djemel Ogolu of the village of Boz-Keuy. 

10. The daughter of Ali Molla of Salihler was violated : 
Gulsoum, wife of Moustapha, was killed after having been 
outraged. . 

11. Were killed for no reason : Alim Effendi, head of the 
telegraph office of Bergamo and Hafiz Effendi, immam of the 
mosque of Eumer Sultan. 

SECOND OCCUPATION : 

1. The first day of the occupation, at Dikili, Molla Meh- 
med, son of Tekidj and eight of his friends were shot. 

2. The same day in the village of Dogandji, Hadji Mehmed 
Ali and ten of his friends were summoned to go to Bergamo in 
order to be questioned by the Commandant. The were all killed 
on the way in spite of the permit which had been granted 
them. 

3. At Bergamo Hadji Ahmed, son of Dilsiz and his wife 
were assasinated in their house and their corpses are there still. 

4. Were butchered at Bergamo, Hafiz Raghib, son of Ma- 
dan, his mother Gulsoum and his wife Zehra. 

5. An old woman of fifty years, the mother of Hafiz Halid 
lecturer of the mosque Yeni-Djami, was killed because she 
resisted outrage. 

6. Ibrahim Agho, major of the village of Kiriklar, was 
summoned by the commandant to Bergamo where he was 
assassinated. 

52 



7. Hadji Osman Effendi of the quarter of Fa'ika was 
killed with his family. 

8. They put out the eyes of Veli Effendi, former judge of 
Soma and killed him there days later. Before his death his 
daughter aged sixteen years was violated. This was because 
he had complained to the English Inquiry Officer ofthe Greek 
atrocities. 

9. The Greek soldiers cut off the feet of Mehmed Ismail 
and of his son Moustapha with a wav. 

10. At the bridge of Nesil, in front of the brickfield, Salih, 
son of Halil, was tied to a tree and shot. 

11. Suleiman, son of Molla Hussein of the village of Boerler 
was shot in front of the government Residency at three o'clock. 

12. The Greek soldiers killed : Kodja Emin, of the village 
of Korkalli; Hassan Ali Tchaouch, Halil, Akcham Oglou and 
Moustapha Tchaouch. 

13. Ali, son of Salih, refugee of Salonica was killed on the 
bridge of Kestelli at Bergamo. His sheep were seized. 

14. The Greek forces carried off .Hadimli Emin Effendi, 
his son Hafiz Hamdi, his wife Fatma, his brother Suleiman's 
wife, his son Enver, his daughter Nazmie. Their fate is unk- 
nown. 

Villages destroyed : 

Tcham-Keuy. Achaghi Kiriklar. 

Yenidje. Rechadie. 

Kizil-Tchoukour. Tepelni. 

Kodja-Oba. Chakran. 

Kosak-entirely. Egri-Gueul. 

Aladjalar. Boz-Keuy partially. 

The population which was not able to flee was either 
burnt or shot by the Greek soldiers in attempting to escape. 
The ruins will afford ocular proof to the honourable inquiry 
commission if it travels through this district. 

53 



Properties set on fire and pillaged : 

That of Eumer Agha, situated between Bergamo and Di- 
kili; that of the Albanian Moustapha, that of Molla Ismail, of 
Kodja Oba; that of Develi Ali, that of Esse Bey, that of Sar- 
dar-Zade, that of Ibrahim Effendi, son of Hadji Molla, that 
of Bektach Hussein Agha, that of Mahmoud Effendi were 
entirely burnt with all the crops. 



Atrocities committed in the neighbourhood of Kinik : 

1. Was burnt to death, Kassab Oglou Himmet, of the 
village of Hamzali. 

2. Were killed by Greek cavalry at Kinik, Hussein, native 
of Kara-Zeibeck, his wife and his two daughters. 

3. Were killed at Kinik, Tirkali Suleiman and his family. 

s 4. The wife of Kassim of the village of Buldjuik was outra- 
ged, the daughter of Touzdjou Hafiz Halil was carried away. 

5. At Tchengue a woman whose name has not 'been able to 
be identified was outraged by twelve persons who also broke 
one of her legs. She is now in the hospital of Soma. The French 
and English officers who have visited this district saw her per- 
sonally and took note of her statements. 

These are only a very few facts of which we have been in- 
formed. They are proved by the evidence of a great number of 
people bearing witness upon oath. We have made a point of 
reporting only those facts whose veracity has been categori- 
cally established. However if the inquiry commission examines 
them with justice and good-will it will judge from these 
examples to what savage and blood-thirsty troops of occupa- 
tion has been delivered the unfortunate Turkish population 
which forms an overwhehning majority of 85 % in the vilayet 
of Aidin. 

Continuation : To corroborate the inquiries we notice 
also the information gathered from official reports. 

54 



19th June : The Greeks, retreating towards Dikili set fire 
to the Mussulman village of Kiriklar. 

19th. June : The property of Bektach, situated between 
Dikili and Bergamo, was burnt by the enemy. 

21st June : A regiment of Greek infantry occupied, after 
a combat lasting from the 19th to the 20th June 1919, and set 
fire to the villages and fields lying between Dikili and Ber- 
gamo. 

21st June. It was proved from the interrogation of Eumer 
Loutfi Effendi by the English Commandant Mr. Huthinson 
that the villages of : Achaghi, Kiriklar, Kalarga, Tcham-Keuy, 
Tepehii, Baba-Keuy, Ham-Zeli had been burned and that the 
women of those villages had suffered outrages. 

22nd June. We hear that, besides those who had emigrated 
to Balifcessir and Smyrna, twenty thousand Mussulmans were 
living in a state of complete destitution under trees and in 
tents at Soma. 

4th July : According to the declarations of the inhabitants 
of the village of Hamza who emigrated on account of the at- 
rocities, the enemy cavalry extorted money from the inhabi- 
tants, at the tune of the occupation of the village. 

10th. .July : The enemy partly burnt the villages of Dju- 
mali and Tchengueli. At Tcheiugueli a woman was wounded in 
two places. At Djumali an old man was killed and burnt, anot- 
her old man was killed, a woman had her eyes put out. Two 
days before the attack, :at Hamzali, an old man was killed and 
two others wounded; these wounded are now being cared for 
in the village of Boldja. These crimes were noted on the spot 
at eleven o'clock this morning by the commandant of the re- 
gion and the English investigating officers. 

13th July : Yesterday at nine o'clock the quarters of the 
refugees situated to the West of Bergamos, were burnt. 

55 



An Appeal to Justice from the Survivors of the Massacres 
of Menemen forwarded to the Representatives of the Allied 
Powers at Smyrna. 

We address to your Excellency our protestation on the 
sabject of the massacres perpetrated on Tuesday 17th instant 
by the Hellenic troops and native Greeks upon the Mussulman 
population of Menemen, and beg you to su'bmit it to the supe- 
rior judgment of your Government whose protection we de- 
mand. 

On the 22nd of last May, the deputy Governor of the Caza 
Kemal Bey had warned the population of the imminent occupa- 
tion of Menemen by the Hellenic troops >and had exhorted us 
to calm and tranquillity. This occupation was effected in the 
most absolute calm. We even hastened to hand over our arms 
spontaneously to the Hellenic commandant. 

Uufortunately we were terribly deceived and our resigna- 
tion was very differently rewarded. It is in f act affirmed that 
the monstrous crime committed afterwards had been duly pre- 
meditated as is proved by the arming of the native Greeks, and 
by the special signs fixed to the walls of Turkish houses by 
Greek Boy-Ccouts. One morning in the midst of the calm and 
tranquil lity which had not ceased to reiign, a sudden fusillade 
broke out in the town, killing hundreds of Turks, and woun- 
ding many others. ^Scared, we took refuge in our houses; and 
all that day, and all the following night, our houses were bro- 
ken onto, pillaged and everyone even women and children put 
to the sword. The Deputy-Governor Kemal 'Bey was assassi- 
nated in his room in his night-shirt. He who had always reas- 
sured the population was the first victim of the crime preme- 
ditated by the Greek commandant and executed by his tools 
The pretended attemp- at revolt is a pure invention and the 
clearest proof is, that not a single Greek soldier or civilian had 
even a scratch. 

56 



The following facts fully prove the premeditation of these 
massacres : 

1. The eve of the crime the Turkish houses were searched 
on pretext of looking for arms. 

2. The Greek battalion retreating from 'Bergamo with- 
drew to Deyirmen Dagh to hold council with the native Greek 
bandits. 

3. The night preceding the crime the Konak of the Go- 
vernment was occupied by a strong Greek detachment which 
assassinated the Deputy-Governor and six gendarmes who 
were there. 

4. The Mussulman population did not use arms since no 
Greelk, either civilian or soldier, was even wounded. 

5. The use of explosive bullets as the subsequent inquiry 
proved. 

6. The insulting- behaviour of the Graeiks, who even as- 
saulted the Greek Metropolitan (bishop) Monseigneur Nikola- 
dis in the church itself, because he opposed the massacres of 
the Turkish population. 

7. The sign of the cross affixed to the shops and houses 
of the non-Mussulmans on the eve of the events, which resul- 
ted in the sacking of those belonging to Mussulmans. 

8. The confession of the Greek merchant Anania who con- 
fessed in the shop of Chukri Effendi and .before witnesses 
that the young Greeks wished to massacre the Turks, but that 
he and the Metropolitan opposed it. 

9. The warning give by Saboundji Panayot to his Mus- 
sulman friends that they would be massacred and that they 
should escape as soon as possible. 

10. The corpses of most of the Mussulmans were thrown 
into the river Mermmus. 

11. Many Turks were assassinated at Kizkapou and 
Teherkess Mahalle. 

12. A certain number of corpses were cremated in the 
quarter Koughadji-Bachi and many others buried clandestinely 
in different places to destroy the proofs of these savage deeds. 

57 



The instigator and organiser of those horrible crimes is 
the Commandant in person of the Hellenic forces. We demand 
before all the exemplary punishment of this monster. 

Next we demand protection for our honour, our life and 
our property exposed at every moment to the danger of these 
bandits. If the civilised world will not recognize our right to 
existence and to a life of security, we beg you to pronounce 
our death sentence so that we may prepare for it. But we trust 
that your Government and your nation will not permit the 
continuation of such crimes. 

Once more we invoke the aid and protection of the great 
nations of Europe and of America. We beg them to spare us 
after these painful events the horrors of guerrilla warfare 
which will end by completely ruining this rich region. 

Summary of the report of the Special Commission of Ju- 
diciary Inquiry into the Events of Menemen. 

Having been informed of the massacres and extortions 
committed at Menemen we the undersigned Governor-General 
Yzzet Bey, Public Prosecutor Hilmi, the Officer of Public 
Health the Chief -Police Magistrate Salaheddin, the doctors 
Djemal and Fikry Beys, the English Officers Captain Charns 
and Lieutenant Lorimer and the medical delegates of the 
English and Italian Consulates, went to Menemen on Tuesday 
the 17th of June 1919 to carry out the inquiry into the events 
which took place there. 

Immediately on leaving the train after having remarked 
in, a ditch close by several corpses in a state of putrefaction 
amongst others those of the family of Arnavoud Salih, we 
proceeded to the government house where, on the tiles and 
flooring of several rooms, the bloodstains, resulting from the 
assassination of the Governor Kemal Bey and of the Turkish 
gendarmes, were plainly visible in spite of the attempts which 
had been made to efface them. The bloodstained uniform of 
one of the gendarmes was hanging in one room. The Greek 
commandant of occupation, interrogated by the Commission, 

58 



stated that, the Greek troops had been fired upon and that 
in the scuffle which followed the Governor Kemal 'Bey and 
some other persons were killed by mistake, that pillaging had 
taken place but that .the guilty persons were prosecuted and 
brought before the Court Martial. After having taken note 
of the Greek commandant's statements it was the turn of the 
Mussulman notabilities amongst others the Mufti Ibrahim 
Effendi, the mayor Suleiman Bey, Halil Habib, hadji Mous- 
tapha, Abali Zade Kemal etc. 

From the unanimous declaration of these notabilities, 
questationed separately by the Commission, it stands out 
clearly that the Mussulman population of Menemen gave a 
perfectly correct reception to the Hellenic occupying corps 
and that far from provoking them to the excesses, which 
would have been reprehensible in any case, it remained abso- 
lutely calm and tranquil. The Greek commandant's allegation 
regarding the. siiottj fired on the Hellenic soldiers is denied 
upon oath by all the witnesses without exception. Besides, 
the arms which might have been in the hands of the Turks 
had been collected and all the Mussulman houses had been 
searched. The non-existence of Greek wounded, either civilian 
or miliary, as against a thousand Turkish victims, confirms 
the veracity of the evidence. The massacres, the destructions 
and the extortions committed at Menemen by the Hellenic 
soldiers and the native Greeks can only be imputed to a vile 
spirit of vengeance and cupidity. It results indeed from the 
inquiry that this coup-de-main, prepared long beforehand at 
the instigation of unworthy passions, was opposed by the 
Greek clergy, the Metropolitan and by M. M. Anania, Lava 
and other welknowh Greeks of the town. They warned several 
of their Turkish friends and opposed it as far as they could 
even at the risk of their lives. But nothing could check the 
rapacity of the populace aided and supported by the regular 
Hellenic forces. 

This first point elucidated, the Commission investigated 
the atrocities and iniquitous" crimes committed by these wret- 
ches. Certain details were of such a horrible nature that the 

59 



members of the Commission felt revolted notwithstanding 
that they had been prepared to hear of the most incredible 
horrors. 

All sorts of people; women, girls, children down to babies, 
more than a thousand persons were basely assassinated. Du- 
ring the few hours of its stay at Menemen the Commission 
was able to draw up a list, which though incomplete, contains 
the names already of more than five hundred unfortunate 
victims. The Hellenic agent having opposed a thorough inves- 
tigation, and the exhumation of the hundreds upon hundreds 
of corpses buried clandestinely by the Hellenic military aut- 
horities, the identity of the other victims could not be estab- 
lished on the spot the same day. 

The number of killed and wounded would certainly have 
been several times greater had it not been for the humane 
intervention of two French officers who, arriving that day 
at Menemen interposed energetically with the object of stop- 
ping the massacres. These two brave Frenchmen, of whom all 
the witnesses speak with the greatest gratitude behaved in a 
truly admirable manner, going from place to place and chec- 
king at every step these brutes, that bloodshed and carnage 
had stirred up to the highest pitch of bestiality. They mana- 
ged thus to save many persons and to send many others into 
the zone of their own conscription. All the same there are 
more than a thousand killed and several hundred wounded. 

The Greeks to hide the proofs of their guilt, wanted to 
destroy the corpses. But the number of the latter being too 
great, for lack of time they piled them by tens into hastily 
dug trenches, insufficiently covered with earth. Most of these 
trenches were to be seen and the Commission took note of 
several. 

The massacres were not confined to the town. They exten- 
ded also to the surroundings, to the fields, the mills, the farms 
where another thousand of victims may be counted. All the 
buildings outside the town, as well as several hundreds of 
houses in the town itself, were pillaged, sacked or destroyed. 
This is what the Greeks themselves while admitting, do not 

60 



succed in justifying in spite of their zeal in explaining the 
events in their own fashion. 

Telegram from the Mudir of Ayazmend dated 23rd July 
1919. 

As it appears also from the information furnished by the 
commandant of the region of Aivalik to the competent authori- 
ties, on the 7th instant, at the time when I was at Pishaya on 
official business, a band of four or five hundred Hellenic hor- 
semen came to the village of Salihler which had been evacu- 
ated by the inhabitants the same morning. After having attac- 
ked this village, they killed Tirtil Hussni, son of Selim and 
forced to flight by f king on them about fifteen persons who 
had not emigrated. Then they occupied the chief town of the 
Nakie with considerable forces. 

Villages destroyed. 

The following villages of Bergamo one of the richest and 
most prosperous regions in the world are completely burnt and 
destroyed by Greek hordes : 

Kirikly. Kodja-Oba. 

Kalarga. Merkez-Kozak. 

Djame-Keuy. Aladjalar. 

Eminly. Achaghi-Kiriklar. 

Mouhadjir. Rechadiye. 

Baba-Keuy. Tepeleni. 

Hamzaly. Chakran. 

Korkally. Eyri-Gueul. 

Eyry-Keuy. Boz-Keuy. 

Yenidje. Djoumali. 

Kizil-Tchoukour. Tchenguelly. 

Report to the Minister of Justice addressed by the Public- 
Prosecutor of Tire, the 8th July 1919. 

I inform you herewith of the manner in which the Greek 
troops occupied the Caza of Tire, in the province of Aidin, and 
of the events which took place : 

- 61 



The Gaza of Tire was occupied on Thursday 29th May 
1919 by the soldiers evzones, under the command of Captain 
Alexandros and accompanied by armed Greeks of the Cazas 
of Tire and Baidir. On the 31st May 1919 the Greeks on their 
way to Eudemich to occupy it, encountered, near the village 
of Hadji Ilias, situated four hours from Tire and in the Gaza of 
Eudemich, at a place called Zindjirli-Eouyou, the "Zeibecks" 
of the Gaza of Eudemich. Then they killed in an extremely 
tragic manner, four Mussulmans of the Gaza of Tire, who 
were employed in agricultural work in the plain and took pos- 
session of the cattle and property of the population of Hadji- 
Ilias. The Greeks of Tire and of Baindir took part in these 
persecutions. 

v The 2nd of June 1919 the Hellenic troops of occupation 
having announced that the population was to hand over its 
arms, and the deputy governor having published separate 
intimations, the population of the town and of the villages 
was disarmed. Ten days having elapsed, and under pretext of 
an encounter with another band of "Zeibecks" in a place situ- 
ated eight hours from Tire, outside the commune of Erbeyli 
of the Sandjak of Aidin, acts of incendiarism, pillage and 
massacre occurred in several villages of the commune of Kara- 
Pounar whose names have not been able to be determined. 

On the 22nd of June 1919 early in the morning, the seat 
of government and the gendarmerie station were invested by 
Greek troops armed and provided with machine guns; the 
Mussulman quarters of the town were strictly watched. A 
search was made for arms and though none wore found the 
Mussulman population and the notabilities of the country 
were dragged from their houses, imprisoned in the recruiting 
office and in the basement of the Greek school, situated in 
the quarter, where they were beaten and tortured. 

At tfiree o'clock in the afternoon and during there hours 
while the deputy-governor Ahmed Dourmouch Bey with other 
companions were in the gendarmerie bureau, the functionaries 
and the gendarmes were prevented from going out. The Cadi, 

62 



the president of the court of justice and other functionaries 
whose houses were at some distance from the government 
buildings were also kept prisoners at home. The Mussulmans 
whose name f ogured on the lists that the Greeks of the country 
held in their hands were arrested by Hellenic soldiers. The 
police magistrate of the Caza of Tire, Ahmed Hamdi Effendi, 
was apprehended at the gendarmerie station, where he was 
in company with us, by the soldiers armed with bayonets, and 
one native Greek; on his return he declared to have been 
heaped with insults and threatened with death. 

The families of those who had been arrested applied to 
the deputy governor and to me, to demand the liberation of 
their husband, father and son. The deputy-governor at my 
urgent request addressed himself to the commandant of the 
troops of occupation, urging him to put a stop to this state 
of things. But as fresh appeals, arrests and tortures continued, 
and it was not in pur power to save the Mussulman population, 
from the misfortune which had come upon them, as these 
persecutions extended to the functionaries also, the aforesaid 
police magistrate fled to Smyrna. 

The commandant of the troops of occupation carried off 
the arms destined for the guards of the gendarmerie, and 
those found at the court of justice as proof of guilt. The atro- v 
cities which continued rendering insecure the life, honour and 
property of the functionaries as well as of the Mussulman 
population, the former began to withdraw. (The native Greeks 
had been armed with the weapons taken from the population.) 
Murder, pillage, torture and incendiarism had reached a pitch 
far exceeding the cruelties of the Inquisition. As I felt myself 
incapable of assisting at such tragic spectacles, as the right 
to live existed no longer in the occupied districts, I was obliged 
to leave my post on the 29th of June 1919. I was able to take 
refuge with great difficulty at Karassi, I submit the causes 
of my departure to your appreciation and await your orders. 



63 



The Horrors of the Valley 
of Meandre, Aidin, Nazilii Denizli. 



Memorial on the Greek atrocities during the occupation 
and evacuation of Aidin and of Nazilii. 

1. In the evening of the 15th May 1919, the unexpected 
news which reached Aidin by telegram of the occupation of 
Smyrna by the Hellenic forces, caused a very lively emotion 
among the Mussulman inhabitants. But the excitement reac- 
hed a still higher pitch, when immediately afterwards tidings 
came of the crimes committed by the Greeks upon the Turkish 
population of the great Aegean port. 

The commandant of the Hellenic troops announced in his 
first proclamation that he would only occupy Smyrna and her 
immediate surroundings, but made a point of the historic ties 
which he made out to have existed between Greece and the 
region of Smyrna for there thousand years! The second proc- 
lamation however was addressed "to the population of the 
whole Vilayet". 

The Turks of Aidin were not deceived as to the intentions 
of the Hellenic Government and the consequences which could 
not fail to follow. Fore-seeing the danger, they addressed 
themselves to the Allied representatives and while protesting 
against this arbitrary claim, declined beforehand all respon- 
sibility for subsequent events so long as the authors of the 
ignominies committed upon the Turkish population of Smyrna 
and the neighbourhood had not been punished. 

On the repeated assurances of the English military repre- 
sentatives at Aidin, that the occupation had a purely military 

64 



and temporary signification and would be limited to the surro- 
undings of Smyrna only, the population gave up all thought 
of armed resistance to this unjust invasion. 

2. On Monday 27th. of May the Greeks occupied Aidin 
without any resistance. On the 4th. of June, they arrested at 
the station of Balatdjik the profesor Ahmed Emin Bey, the 
notability Kiamil Effendi, the lawyer Rechid and his brother 
Assim, the notability Chefik Safi; Refik Cehevket and Omer 
Lutfi Beys lawyers af Nazilli. They were accused "of not 
desiring the presence of the Greeks at Aidin". These doings 
alarmed the people indeed, but all the same they did not des- 
pair of the justice of civilised Europe. 

3. The following night, the tenth after the occupation, 
six of the most respected notabilities who were going home, 
were mortally beaten by a Greek officer. The same night and 
the next day, Greek soldiers broke into Turkist houses, which 
they pillaged, and violated the women they found there. From 
that time, pillage, murder and assaults on the honour of fa- 
milies continued worse than ever. The native Greeks outdid 
the Greek soldiers in ignominy. An employe of the stock exc- 
hange Nouri Effendi, Kavass Zade, Mehmed Effendi, his brot- 
her Moustapha, Yuzbachi Zade Bahri, Hadji Ibrahim Effendi 
Zade Yeyzi, Diri Zade Moustapha Effendi were beaten and 
wounded; the mother and sister of Hafiz Mehmed Effendi of 
Karadja Eurene and others were violated. 

4. On Tuesday 3rd, of June the Greeks also occupied 
Nazilli. On this occasion they forced the Turks, on pain of 
death, to march past the photograph of Venizelos with bowed 
heads. 

5. Nazilli remained 17 days under the Greek occupation. 
During this time they pillaged the Turkish houses, dishonoured 
the women, arrested, beat, wounded many people. Under their 
heel, the Mussulmans could not but resign themselves to their 
terrible fate. 

6. On Tursday 19th at one o'clock in the morning they 
suddenly evacuated Nazilli, taking away with them about forty 

65 



PUg 



Turkish notabilities with handcuffed wrists, whom they 
assassinated at some distance from the town. 

7. On Saturday 21st of June the English officer Mr. Ho- 
der accompanied by Abdurrahman Bey, governor of Aidin, 
Hakki Bey, president of the Court of appeal, and by the nota- 
bilities Izzet Bey, arrived at Nazilli. By a lucky chance the 
Italian Commandant of Gendarmerie Mr. Carvissini was also 
there. Together they made an inquiry into the Greek atrocities. 
Besides the evidence of the Christians themselves, they could 
see on their passage heaps of Turkish corpses torn to pieces 
by Greek soldiers. The facts were so revolting that Mr. Hoder 
could not help expressing publicly before a large audience at 
the town Hall, his indignation at the unjustifiable ignominies 
perpetrated by the Greek commandant and soldiers. 

10. The Mussulman population expected to see these Hel- 
lenic criminals punished. Quite on the contrary from the 21st 
to the 30 th of June the Greeks gave free course to their 
villainies, and the town of Aidin became the frightful theatre 
of the most odious crimes that the 'annals of past eras have 
ever registered. Fires, destruction of towns and villages, pe- 
ople maltreated, mutilated, wounded, butchered, burnt alive, 
torn to pieces, nothing was wanting. They massacred fifty 
Turks at Kermendjik, butchered like cattle other six in the 
train going to Aidin, throwing out their dead bodies all along 
the railway line. They burnt all the villages of the region, 
massacring their inhabitanas. Only a few of these poor terri- 
fied peasants were able to save their lives by taking refuge 
in the rugged mountains. At Aidin in the open street, they 
stopped the peasants, showering blows on them, riddling them 
with bayonets under the very eyes of the inhabitants. They 
shut up the poor creatures in underground cellars without 
air, light or food for several days. To these horrible deeds 
are added the vialinies of native Greek bandits armed by Hel- 
lenic authority. Safety no longer existed. The Turks closed 
their shops, left their affairs, and each tried to take shelter 
in his own house. A delegation sent to the Greek Commandant 

66 



obtained no reply. Then began an exodus in mass of the 
Turkish population. 

11. Other signs also foretold the coming destuction of 
Aidin .and the massacre of its inhabitants. A native Greek 
shoemaker, Mihalaki, who was persona grata with the Hellenic 
authorities said to Djanbaz Zade Ali Effendi on this subject 
that "the Greek Government would perhaps evacuate Aidin, 
but that those who would occupy it, would find not a man 
living nor a house standing". Moreover, some other native 
Greeks amongst them Dr. Harilaridis, Dr. Ourgandji-Oglou, 
the merchant Theocharis repeated on all hands : "Ah, you 
await the help of the Italians, you will see how you will be 
punished". The Greeks having isolated Aidin, ordered the non- 
musulmans, Jews, Armenians and others, to exchange their 
fez (Turkish headdress) for hats. They declared that they 
would accept no responsibility for the life of those who did 
not comply with this order. 

13. On Thursday the 26th of June, the Greek commandant 
assembled the Turks in the court of the government buildings 
and summoned them to hand over within 18 hours the six thou- 
sand rifles which they should possess. "If a single one is mis- 
sing, you will all be shot", he told them. And in a threatening 
tone he added "the Greek occupation is not at all of a tem- 
porary nature, it is the definitive annexation of Aidin to 
Greece". The governor Abdurrahman Bey, promised him to 
do all in his power to collect the arms that the population 
might possess, but he drew the attention of the Hellenic com- 
mandant to the massacres and systematic exactions which 
continued, both in the town and in the villages, and observed 
that the circulation of armed native Greeks and their constant 
misdeeds were not likely to facilitate his taks. The Greek com- 
mandant, without denying these crimes only said that his 
resolution was taken and his order categorical. 

13. On Friday the 27th of June, the ushers of the govern- 
ment offices and the next day the governor Abdurrahman 
Bey, the president of the Court of Appeal, the public prosecu- 

67 



tor, the notabilities Izzet, Hadji Ahmed Beys and the surveyor 
of taxes Omer Bey, the Dr. Noury Bey and many other persons 
were arrested. The dead bodies of most of them were found 
some lays later in the mountains, but the fate of the other 
unfortunates remains unknown to this day. 

14. On the 29 th. of June the Greek commandant having 
tried to encircle by surprise the national Turkish forces, con- 
centrated to the south of Meandre ; a battle began. On Monday, 
June 30th at 11 o'clock in the morning, after a combat of forty 
hours, the national forces entered the town. The calvary of the 
Turkish inhabitants of A'idin during these two days cannot be 
described. The Greek soldiers, aided by the native Greeks set 
fire to the Turkish quarters, shot with rifles and machine 
guns, all the unfortunates, women, children, old men, who 
tried to escape from the fire and who succumbed in the midst 
of the flames. It was one way of getting rid of their corpses, 
the irrefutable proof of their monstruous ignominy. 

15. Hundreds of poor people took refuge in the French 
Girl's School; four French officers of gendarmerie, the hono- 
rary consul of France, Mr. Vasilaki, a native Greek, the sisters 
of the Catholic School, as well as Mr. Hoder were eye-witnesses 
of these incredible crimes. 

16. In spite of the complicity and association of the native 
Greeks in the perpetration of these crimes, the national forces 
on retaking the town, did not attempt to avenge themselves on 
these perfidious and murderous compatriots. On the contrary 
they procured shelter for them in the towns not occupied by 
the Greeks, as their own testimony proves. 

perfidious and murderous compatriots. On the contrary they 
procured shelter for them in the towns not occupied by the 
Greeks, as their own testimony proves. 

17. The president of the Tribunal Hakki Bey, the athor- 
ney^general Chevket Bey and the notability Izzet Bey who had 
been taken away by the Greeks, were assassinated by them, 
to destroy the proofs that these unfortunates had been so ill- 
advised as to colleet concerning the erimes of Nazilli and the 

68 



surrounding villages. But they were not the only witnesses, 
and the English officer Mr. Hoder is also well informed about 
them. The victims of the town of Aidin, number about 4400, 
more than 4000 of whom are Mussulmans, and only there or 
four hundred non Mussulmans. The material damage is valued 
at more than 12 millions of Turkish pounds, that is more than 
250 millions of francs. 

We bring to the knowledge of the civilised world these 
acts of atrocity and of barbarism. From Smyrna as far as Na- 
zil'li all the towns, villages, hamlets are but a heap of ruins 
and ashes. Most of them scarcely hide amongst their still 
smoking debris, the carbonised corpses, Ibhe bleeding remains 
of thousands, of tens of thousands of poor innocent people, 
of women, of children, of old men sacrificed to the ferocity of 
the Hellenic hordes. Hundreds of thousands of refugees still 
more wretehed, are now wandering in the mountains without 
shelter without resting-place, without food, morally and physi- 
cally cast down, living proofs of the Greek crimes. And from 
all this devastated region rises today a cry of terrible distress. 
They appeal for aid and protection, but the dead as well as 
the living demand one thing above all; justice. 



Letter addressed by Chukri Bey, commandant of the na- 
tional forces, to the commandant of the Italian contingents 
of Tchine, to be forwarded to the Representatives of Italy, the 
United States, England and France. 

The Greeks, who have occupied Aidin and the surrounding 
region, have begun after a short period of calm, to practise 
with an unheard of savagery the policy of the extermination 
of the Turkish element, with the object of being able to claim 
and annex these countries the 95 % of whose population are 
Turks and Mussulmans. The massacres, the abominable offen- 
ces, the burning of whole villages and of Turkish quarters, all 
these crimes perpetrated by the Greeks constitute a disgrace 
for our era of civilisation. To have been the victims of such 

- 69 



odious acts what faults could possibly have 'been committed 
by these women, these children, these poor innocent people 
who were only gong about their own business ? They have been 
fired upon with .bombs, rifles and machine guns. They have 
been cast into burning houses and burnt alive; they have had 
their eyes put out, their heads smashed, they have been 
thrown into wells; Turkish travellers were taken out of the 
trains, the women and the young girls were violated under the 
eyes of their husbands and parents, the men assassinated in a 
body; and following on this reign of terror, because of these 
crimes and these massacres the mussulman population of 
Seu'ke as far as AMin, stript of its belongings, suffering from 
hunger and poverty, has had to take refuge in the Italian zone 
to the south of the Meandre, while a part have taken refuge 
in the mountains. Why this savagery? What Christian was 
ever molested in these regions by the mussulman population 
of Aidin that the latter should have deserved such odious 
treatment? The few Greeks come from various directions and 
established at Aidin and the neighbourhood from the best off 
and happiest class of the population. This happiness, this we- 
alth are they not the fruits of the good understanding with, 
and benevolent assistance of the Turkish mass? Who could 
deny this evidence?. Are the Turks creatures outside the pale 
of humanity that they may not 'be defended against unjust 
aggressions? We ask this of the conscience of humanity. I call 
to witness the Italians, the French, the English who live at 
Aidin and who always have been treated not as foreigners but 
as compatriots. 

I exhort them to say if the Turkish villages have their 
equals ^amongst their neighbours for calmness and gentleness 
of .behaviour. A prey to perfidious attacks and to an ignoble 
oppression, the Turlks to-day have naturally recourse to arms, 
and are determined to defend their lives and their country 
against the savage incursions of the Greeks. 

In the name of the human conscience I beg you to take 
action so that the question of Aidin may be studied from a hu- 

70 



manitarian point of view and that the population may be deli- 
vered from the babarous regime of the Greek occupation; that 
the inhabitants may regain their rights and their liberty. I pro- 
pose also that the French, English and Italians established at 
Aidin, the gendarmes, the French vice-Consul and the catholic 
sisters should be asked to tell with what kindness the Greek 
population was treated when the town was re-occupied by the 
civilian forces fighting under my orders. The Greeks even 
those who have personally taken an active part in the crimes 
and offences of the Hellenic soldiery, had their lives protected 
from the vengeance, justifiable indeed, of the Turkish popu- 
lation so diabolically martyrized. The Greeks had even massac- 
red infants hi the cradle. They thought it to their interest to 
kill everyone they met. 

I beg you to be so good as to inform the Great Powers of 
the Entente that we pray them in the name of humanity to 
restore calm and order to this coutry by putting an end to the 
ignoble regime of Greek adventurers and by withdrawing the 
Hellenic forces of occupation. Thus the return home will be 
rendered possible to a numerous Turkish population which has 
suffered the torments of hell. 

I beg you Sir to accept etc. 

(signed) Chukri.. 

Commandant of the National Forces 
of the Region of Aidin. 



Telegram dated 2nd July 1919 from the Governor of De- 
nizli. 

I submit to you herewith the text of the telegram add- 
ressed to the English Naval Attache at Constantinople by the 
English Lieutenant Hoder who, being at Aidin during the 
events, was witness of them : 

- 71 



"The situation at Aidin has become very critical. A Mus- 
sulman and Christian population of ten thousand persons is 
homeless. The Mussulmans have been very patient so far, and 
have respected the English rights . I beg you to take immedi- 
ate steps. Inform Sryrna of the facts. 

Another Telegram from the same Governor sent in July 
1919. 

Continuation of yesterday's telegram. I present below a 
textual copy of the telegram addressed by Mr. Hoder, who is 
at Aidin, to the English naval commandant at Smyrna. In a 
telegram addressed to... at Constantinople he begged the lat- 
ter to communicate the affairs of Aidin to the naval comman- 
dant of Smyrna. 

"In consequence of the battle which took place between 
the Hellenes and the Turkish civilians and which lasted from 
the 28th to the 29 th July, the Hellenes have had to leave 
Aidin.... More than half the town is burnt. Ten thousand per- 
sons, Mussulmans and Christian are homeless. The Christians 
are in safety. The government assures their tranquillity and 
their alimentation But, I beg you, so that the life of the Chris- 
tians and of the whole population may not foe endangered, to 
forbid the return of the Greek troops to Aidin and the sur- 
roundings. The Hellenes having done much harm to the Mus- 
sulmans, the security of the Christians could no longer be 
assured. To remove this fear from the Christians, I await your 



Report of the Governor of Aidin. 

In my quality of governor having remained at Aidin du- 
ring the Hellenic occupation, I hereby report in what manner 
the massacres of Aidin were prepared and carried out by the 
Greek military authorities. 

1. The Greeks from the first day exacted the handing 
over of the arms of the Turkish population and proclaimed 

72 



that thouse who did not comply would be shot. With the arms 
thus collected they armed the whole local Greek population. 

2. They made the wearing of hats compulsory for all the 
non-mussulmans, Greeks, Armenians and Jews. This measure 
tended to avoid all error at the time of the massacres ; all those 
wearing the fez (Turkish national headdress) were degigned 
as sole victims. 

3. They ordered the signboards over the Greek and Ar- 
menian shops to be replaced by sign-boards in the Greek lan- 
guage. This to prevent the molestation of the non-Turks when 
the town was pillaged. 

4. They cut the water pipes in the Turkish quarters to 
prevent the extinction of the fires they intended to light. 

5. They strictly forbade the Christians to protect or to 
shelter a single Tur'.c. It was thus impossible for any Turk to 
escape the general massacre that was premeditated. 

6. Having thus taken the necessary measures, they only 
awaited the propitious moment to perpetrate the horrible deed. 
The approach of the Turkish forces when they made their 
counter-offensive against the Greek advance towards the 
'bridge of the Meandre was the expected signal. They first of 
all set fire to the four corners of the Turkish quarters and by 
machine guns, or armed Greek soldiers and civilians, posted 
at the cornes of the streets, on high 'Duildings and minarets 
they opened fire on the Turkish civilian population who terri- 
fied tried to flee from the flames. The dead and wounded, who 
fell thus in the streets were thrown back into their burning 
dwellings and many poor people, old men, women, children of 
tender years were burni alive. 

7. When the fire approached my house we retired into 
the neighbouring one with my family. Including women and 
children we were twenty-five persons. An hour after sun-set, 
the door was forced and about ten Greek soldiers and some 
local Greek ruffians entered the house. After having robbed 
and stripped all who were there they were going to carry off 

73 



four little girls under fourteen years of age. At the supplica- 
tions and lamentations of 'these poor children and their pa- 
rents they (began to insult us in Turkish in terms of an inc- 
redible grossness. They then began to torture and massacre 
those poor creatures. When they had already killed three wo- 
men, two men and four little girls, I took the members of my 
family and escaped by a door of communication into the 
neighbouring house which had already caught fire. It was only 
with the most terrible difificulty that we managed to save 
ourselves. In the course of these events the Greeks robbed 
me of nearly a thousand Turkish pounds, of which the greater 
part belonged to my mother-in-law and other Turkish persons, 
and of jewels to the value of more then (five hundred pounds. 

It would take whole volumes to describe all the crimes 
and offences committed by the Greeks. These champions of 
civilisation gloried in the slaughter of children, in cutting off 
ears, noses, hands, feet, in thrusting all kinds of things, into 
the congenital organs of women and exposing them to the 
mockery of their Greek fellow-countrymen. 



Telegram sent from Tchineby, by the Commandant of the 
57th Brigade. 

"It is confirmed that the Hellenes after the departure of 
the Lieutenant Velsagrand living in Aidin, made preparations 
for the massacre of the population of the iSandjak, and espe- 
cially of the town of Aidin. They began by secretly murdering 
certain Musulmans under the apparent pretext of conveying 
them to prison. This audacity continues and is increased, with 
the participation of native Greeks, by such deeds as; penet- 
rating at night into Mussulman house, outraging the women 
and girls before killing them, at the same tune preventing by 
means of sentries the Mussulman population from going out 
of the houses. The Greeks ordered the non-Mussulmans, Ar- 
menians and Israelites to leave off wearing the fez and to wear 
hats, to mark their houses and shops in a manner to distin- 

74 



gudsh them from those of the Mussulmans. It appears that 
this is with the object of preserving them from massacre. The 
Mussulmans are ordered to igive up within twenty four hours, 
six thousand fire-arms, and thouse who do not comply are 
threatened with death. In different parts of the Mussulman 
quarters are placed cans of petrol, 'guarded by Greek sentries. 
A water pipe supplying the Mussulman quarters having been 
destroyed these quarters are deprived of water. The Hellenic 
attaok of the 28-6, 1919 against the Meandre bridge took place 
for no reason. The Greeks who numbered four thousand and 
possessed the materiel and moral superiority deliberately re- 
tired towards the town and carried the battle into it. The na- 
tional forces were scarcely at a kilometer's distance from the 
town, when the Greeks set fire to the Mussulman quarters at 
two or three points, and on the side from which the wind was 
blowing. The innocent population trying to save its life by co- 
ming out into the streets was shot down by rifle and machine 
guns fire and by bombs; those who did not dare leave their 
houses, fell a prey to the flames. All the Mussulmans would 
have been killed in this manner, if the Hellenes, who were 
fighting against us, had not been beaten by the Mussulman 
population, who hastened to the rescue from all sides. 

The crimes committed in tine villages are not included in 
the details supplied : 

1. The lives of the native Greek population and of forei- 
gners are in safety. Greek men who assassinated Mussulman 
women and children figure amongst them. As the trial of the 
latter has become very difficult, immediate proceedings have 
been taJken by the court martial commission of information. 

2. The Greeks arrested and took away with them : the 
governor of Ai'din : Abdurrahman Bey, the public-prosecutor, 
the president of the court of justice, a notability Izzet Bey, 
the officer of gendarmerie Mehmed Arif Bffendi, and other 
persons who fell into then- hands, I am personally replacing 
the governor. 



75 



Telegram from the Deputy- Governor of Aidin 
dated 22 July 1919. 

According to inquiries made, the number of inhabitants 
of Aidin and surroundings who have emigrated, 'been killed, 
or whose fate is unknown is as follows : 

Mussulman emigrants : thirteen thousand; non-mussul- 
man emigrants; one thousand two hundred; Mussulmans kil- 
led by the Greeks : 80.500 ; those whose fate is unknown : 1500. 
AJbout 8000 emigrants are dispersed in the directions of Tehien, 
Moughla, Milas, Kotchari, and about 6000 went to Yeni-Bazar, 
iNazilli, Denizli or farther 'into, the interior of the country. The 
population is 'in great distress. I solicit the speedy sending of 
the aid, requested by my telegram of .the 19th July 1919, and 
of a Red Crescent Mission. 



Telegram of the 26 July 1919 sent by the Deputy- 
Governor of Aidin. 

Continuation of the Telegram of 8th July 1919. 

After the Greek troops having crossed the Meandre from 
the Tchine side, had set on fire the villages of Balta-Keuy, 
Emir-Assi, Savran-Deressd and (Bech-Pounar, pillaged the fur- 
niture, carried off the cattle, the Italian troops occupied the 
bridge and assured the retreat of the Greek troops. The impo- 
tent and the old people and children who could not leave Aidin 
in tune were killed, and the property of those who had fled 
precipitately taking nothing with them, was completely pilla- 
ged. Young girls were assassinated in the presence of the com- 
mandants of the Italian troops who had gone as negotiators. 
A great number of corpses of innocent Mussulman were seen 
along the road. From Ayaslouk as far as Aidin and Nazilli the 
following villages were set enirely on fire : 

76 



Balat-djik. VirarHKapou. 

Kilis^Keuy. Sandibeli. 

DerenKeuy. Kizildja-Keuy. 

Ahres-Keuy. Lner. 

Naibli. Kadi^Keuy. 

Kizildje-Pounar. AhourJCeuy. 

Abdurrahman. Arabkapoussi. 

Hizirlikli. Ichikli. 

Alkeuyly. Osman-Yorghi. 

Eumerbeyli. Yeni^Keuy, 

Tahtadji. Tepedjilk. 

Euruklutekeli. Tcherkess-Keuy. 

Bey^Keuy. EmanKeuy. 

Djiksouret. Sertche-Keuy. 

Hadji-AM. Tahtadjilar. 

Karapounar (town). Tomalan. 

Karabagh. Pounar^Deressi. 

Ikiz-Dere. Kala^Keuy. 

Guermen-djik (chief -town of the Nakie of Aine-Abad). 

The inhabitants were massacred, their goods pillaged, and 
their cattle stolen. The plain of the town of Aidin surrounded 
by gardens and fig-trees is devastated : all the gardens, 
all the houses and their inhabitants have been burned. 
Fresh fires are seen at Aidin. From 'Omourlou to the Meandre 
the population left alive which had assembled at Omourlou 
have made a rampart of their bodies against the cannons, guns, 
machine-guns, bombs of the Hellenes and do not cease to fight. 
From time to time the Greeks who attack are repulsed as far 
as Aidin with losses. We have no news of the other villages 
of the plain and of the mountains, nor of the atrocities that 
their inhabitants undergo. More than fifty housand persons 
having received no favourable reply to the reports presented, 
destitute of everything necessary for human life, condemned 
to perish, await from the 'Civilised world and from the Otto- 
man government the expected aid. They are enabled to exist 
thanks to what is sent them by the governor of Mougla, and 

77 



the honourable population of this Sandjak, though it is not 
sufficient. The side are cared for in the hospital and in the 
military hospital of the Brigade which already existed, but 
which wants medicaments. 

Delegations arrive from Nazilli and from Yeni^Bazar to 
beg the Italian commandant that the Hellenic cruelties may 
not penetrate into their country. How long will this tyranny 
last? The Wilsonien principles, the resolutions of the peace 
conference and of the league of nations will they be applied to 
tihe decomposed corpses of the innocent and persecuted inha- 
bitants of Aidin who were burnt with their houses? I beg to 
inform you, that I am awaiting speedy, good and sympathising 
news from the Ottoman Government and that the communi- 
cations of the -ministry may be made via Denizli, Tavas and 
Moughla. 



Telegram sent from Tchine by Nouroullah Bey 
Head-Book-Keeper of Aidin. 

The crimes and atrocities, such as the. assassination (di- 
rectly by the Hellenes of by organised bands of native 
Greeks) of a great number of innocent Mussulmans and even 
of children, the violations, the massacres of Mussulmans, the 
intentional setting fire to the Mussulman quarters will be re- 
garded by the civilised world as a form of barbarism. The bom- 
bardment from the minarets and other high places of the 
town, the fire which resulted from it, and the fires lighted 
without reason behind the Mussulman quarters have destroyed 
more than the half of the town. The Mussulmans, children and 
women, who came out of their houses to escape the flames 
were killed by the machine-guns and those who were afraid 
to come out were burnt with their houses. The Siame acts of 
barbarism were performed behind the town, so that the whole 
region is only a heap of ruins. The high functionaries including 
the governor Abdurrahman Bey the president of the Criminal 

170 



Court, the Prosecutor and a great number of notabilities di- 
sappeared by the hand of the Hellenes. All the functionaries 
are in distress. They were obliged to leave Aidin and come to 
Tchine. At present there exists at Aidin neither government 
representative nor population. As the Greeks have also occu- 
pied the territory beween Nazilli and Aidin, the atrocities are 
just as common in these regions. Everywhere in the plain, on 
the mountains and in the houses the Mussulmans have had to 
undergo the same infamies and massacres. Those who were 
able to escape have retired to the mountains and to the south 
of the Meandre. These people are in a miserable state and 
there is no possibility of bringing them back to the regions 
occupied by the Greeks, nor of securing the safety of their 
lives. There is a pressing need for provisions, medicaments 
and tents. It is impossible to procure them on the spot. We 
urgently beg that help may be speedily sent, that the popula- 
tion may be restored to its country, and that the Greek occu- 
pation may be brought to an end. 

When the fatigue resulting from having been obliged to 
come on foot from Aidin to Tchine, and the horror with which 
my heart was filled at the sight of so much infamy and barba- 
rism have subsided, and as long as I stay here, I shall keep 
you informed of the (atrocities whlich take place. 



Report of Mr. Stamath, Greek Ottoman Judge 
at the Law-Courts of Aidin. 

Entry of the troops of occupation into Smyrna, cause of 
their advance towards the interior, and the manner in which 
this advance .was carried out, atrocities committed. 

June 8th. 1918. 

Giving as pretext the encounter which had taken place 
in the vicinity of the 'government buildings, and which was 
caused by the entry of the Greeks 'into Smyrna, in a manner 

79 



that none could have imagined, .the latter had insulted and 
(killed a great number of officers and soldiers who, it was said, 
had made use of their arms. This news having spread to the 
interior of the country a national desire to prevent the Greeks 
from penetrating any farther had awakened amongst the po- 
pulation of Aidin which, amongst all the other Sandjaks is dis- 
tinguished for its bravery. But letters sent by influential nota- 
bilities, who had gone to Smyrna to get information as to the 
events and had there endured many insults and impertinences, 
had caused this desire, which would doubtless have prevented 
the atrocities which took place later, to remain inactive. From 
fear of a repetition of the painful events of Smyrna and as 
result of the numerous consultations between Greek and Mus- 
sulman notabilities, it was agreed that a delegation should go 
to meet any Greek troops that might come to Aidin, and that 
they should on no account be attacked. This is what took place. 
The native Greeks after the arrival of the Hellenes at Smyrna 
having addressed repeated telegrams to the representatives 
of the Powers of the Entente and of Greece, to tell them that 
the lives of the Christians were threatened by a supposed pro- 
ject of massacre organised by the Mussulmans, a delegation 
having even been sent with this purpose, the Greek troops 
without being attacked by the Mussulmans and unprovided 
with food hastened to penetrate into Aidin one evening and a 
few days later into Nazilli. They fed themselves for one or two 
days with bread which they procured at the houses of the 
Greeks and with the cattle of the later which they slaughtered. 
The Hellenes, with the object of conciliating themselves with 
the Turkish race, of suppressing the misunderstanding and 
mistrust that existed, behaved correctly for five or six days. 
But certain soldiers giving way to their natural instincts, at- 
tacked some of the Mussulman houses, incited and led on by 
native Gredks, the Hellenes arrested some respected notabili- 
ties of the country with the vile purpose of satisfying their 
revenge. These regrettable deeds and others naturally ange- 
red the mussulman population which again raised complaints. 
Lofty desires to defend the country and the rights of the pe- 

80 



ople by arms were reawakened. At this moment the Greek 
commandant declared that for military reasons the troops 
that were at Nazillli, and even if need toe those at Aidin would 
retire to Smyrna, in order to avoid the events which had taken 
place at Bergamo. Other declarations coming from the circle 
of the commandant alarmed the native Greeks. Thereupon it 
was heard in town that the Greeks having left Nazilli by night, 
were retiring upon AMin, killing a great number of people by 
shots fired right and left, and setting fire to -houses. It was 
even heard that some notabilities of Nazilli carried off as pri- 
soners had been massacred. Public opinion was extremely mo- 
ved by this. At the same time bands, which had 'been organi- 
sed, and formed themselves in all parts and whose numbers 
were increasing, as the Greek commandment had been infor- 
med, were approaching, the town : encounter lasting a few 
hours had taken place once or twice in the neighbourhood of 
Tel'li-dede. Meinwhile the Hellenes asserting that bands were 
hidden in the houses and had fired upon them, set fire to the 
neighbouring villages. Those who were returning from the 
battle and especially those inhuman barbarians, those blood- 
thirsty mountaineers and nomads bearing the name of Evzo- 
nes, killed or inflicted injuries worse than death on all whom 
they met wearing the fez and whom they called "Turks", pil- 
laged villages, carrying off the cattle, horses aU the animals 
and all the property which they sold in town for next to not- 
hing. I feel obliged to relate the following fact as a living proof 
of their fanaticism. The evening of the encounter five Greek 
soldiers with fixed bayonets came to me and paper in hand, 
told me that they had heard from a sure source that a great 
number of Turks were hidden in my house. They told me I 
should be bayoneted without mercy if a single one were dis- 
covered. My house having been searched several times, I fo- 
und myself dbliged to take refuge in the cellar of my neigh- 
tbour Ohannes Effendi, as the servant of the latter, Maria the 
wife of the shoemaker Panali and all the inhabitants of the 
house can bear witness. 

81 



Another f act : 

I was invited by the governor Abdurrahman Bey to trans- 
late the speech of the Greek commandant which had to be read 
in front of the government buildings. With the sole intention 
of not wounding the feelings of my Mussulman compatriots, 
I translated the passage written in large characters and sa- 
ying : "The Hellenic troops have come to Aidin with the con- 
sent of the Powers of the Entente and will remain there per- 
manently" by "The Hellenic troops have come to Aidin and 
will remain there only temporarily". Two Greeks standing be- 
side me said : "No the translation is false, pay attention to 
that point". This excited the Greeik element and they began 
to show me ill-feeling. I was summoned to the office of the 
Gree'k commandant's aide de camp, where I was insulted, while 
they declared to me "You are for the Turks, you are not with 
us. Why 'did you translate permanently by temporarily? Take 
care". As if that were not enough even the private soldiers 
had been informed against me. 'One day as I was going to- 
wards the avenue of the Government buildings, I was begged 
(by an old man, named Ali Ajgha I think, in front of Ali Bffen- 
di the shoemaker's shop, to come to the rescue of the son of 
the watchmaker Ahmed Effendi, who was being beaten by 
Greek soldiers. I entered the shop where I saw a soldier in the 
act of raising his gun to strike the child. I tried to hold the 
gun saying : "I beg you to pardon him to please me, Dont 
fltiurt him. Besides the child is an epileptic. He ought to be ex- 
cused even if he has done wrong." The soldier fixing his ba- 
yonet, rushed on me in a furious rage, crying out "I will do 
for you". I had to fly to save my life, but I learnt from the 
same soldier whom I met the next day, that his attitude to- 
wards me had been the result of the unfavourable opinion in 
regard to me with which he had been inspired beforehand. 
This soldier had no sooner perceived me, than he threatened 
me saying : "Why did you take hold of the gun?" You protect 
the Turks. Besides I have been told by many Greeks that you 
have Turkish sympathies. Take care not to protect the Turks. 

82 



Take off your fez too, if you don't want it to be found in the 
street some day. 

The gardener Dimitri will bear witness tnat it was with 
the greatest difficulty that I escaped his hands. 

I shut myself up at home for two days, to avoid the at- 
tacks of the Evzones, who wished to make me take off my fez : 
I quote the fact to show their contemptible intentions. 

Then began the tragic event of Aidin. Alas and alas! This 
dark event could only be depicted by dipping^ poisoned dag- 
ger in human blood. He who proposed to overthrow the ma- 
jestic tree of Islamism deeply rooted by its foundations and 
traditions for so many years, he who had the intention of 
suppressing the Mussulman world, instead of fighting bravely 
and respecting military dignity and moral laws, cast thousands 
of projectiles on the houses and setting fire to the quarters 
of the Mussulmans, fired with machine guns on the population 
living there, which was thus wiped out even to the infants in 
the arms of their mothers. Heaps of skeletons were formed of 
their bodies. It is beyond doubt that any description of these 
devastations would come short of the truth. At the moment 
when this state of things was 'going on and when the Mussul- 
mans were agonising, divine justice made its appearance, ex- 
tinguishing the fires lighted by the oppressors and silencing 
then- arms. Victorious Turkish 'bands penetrated into the 
town, amazed and overcome by the indescribable atrocities 
that met their eyes. Although provoked to the highest pitch, 
yet in spite of their ignorance they did not forget their moral 
and religious qualities, and did not take revenge upon innocent 
Christians. The Christian population which had taken refuge 
at the Catholic Sisters' School was transported with the ob- 
ject of protecting it, to. the government building; then, regu- 
larly provisioned, it was taken iby train to safer quarters in 
the interior. But some young men, ungrateful traitors of low 
instincts, having ambushed themselves in houses from whence 
they fired upon the bands repeatedly and steadily, the latter 
fired back. The fire which took place destroyed the Greek 

83 



quarters. The result is that the pretty town of Aidin presents 
a ruined aspect. Uufortunately the voices imploring help do 
not reach the just and charitable ear of the Powers of the 
Entente. iNo glance is east on this sombre spectacles, as if the 
annihilation of Anatolia had been decided on. That is the civi- 
lisation of the twentieth century, its works and its charms. 
Alas! 

Deeply dejected I have summed up what I have seen in 
five pages without deviating in the slightest degree from my 
conscience, and I present my evidence to the governor in the 
interests of humanity, 

Stamath. 

I add a few facts that I had omitted in my report, my 
mind being perturbed at the time I drew it up. 

The following facts are established : 

The Greek troops of reinforcement seeing, after the enco- 
unter which took place with the bands at Erbeyli, that some 
Evzones had been killed, arrested and killed some notabilities 
of Erbeyli, Hizirbeyli, Kermendjik and Kara-Pounar and set 
fire to the villages. After the painful event of Aidin the presi- 
dent of the Criminal Courts, the Prosecutor, the notabilities 
Hadji Bey, his son Chabir and other persons, the numbers and 
names of whom will be established later on, were arrested and 
taken away. The arms of the policement and gendarmeries 
were carried off the day before the event. The arms of the 
Mussulmans having been confiscated, these were used to arm 
the native Greeks. In proof of this I can testify that when I 
found myself as a refugee at the Catholic iSisters' School some 
French gendarmes declared that they would make a report 
concerning some guns of large calibre taken from native 
Greeks and which in my quality of judge they showed to me 
as witness, and 'also that I heard shots fired in the interior of 
the town from Greek houses. As for the propagation of the 
fire, in the Greek quarter, that took place before the arrival 

84 



of the bands, and because the fire lighted by the Greeks in the 
Mussulman quarters of Duban-eunu spread to the house of Fi- 
liden, Who lives in the Greek quarter and from there to the 
other parts. And even when hidden iat the Catholic Sisters' 
School we were conveyed to the government building by the 
bands to be protected from the fire which had nearly reached 



To the managing treasurer of the sous-prefecture 
of Aidin. 

On the arrive! of the Hellenic forces of occupation in the 
commune of Ine-<Abad, the local population had manifested no 
resistance towards them. In spite of that when the occupation 
was extended as far as Aidin and Nazilli the conduct of the 
Greeik soldiers who had remained in the stations of Baladdjik, 
Kermendjik, Erbeyli, Kara-Pounar and in the surrounding 
Villages was more than brutal with regard to the population 
They 'began by taking possession of all the domestic animals 
belonging to the people; by insulting the Mussulmans in the 
streets and public places; by extorting money from peaceable 
labourers going to their fields ; by attacking the honour of the 
women they met alone in the gardens. Then it became dange- 
rous for the inhabitants, to go freely about their affairs in 
their grounds and properties; public order and safety were 
gravely compromised. These crimes committed against the 
population increased every day. 

The clock placed in the police station at the government 
buildings and the equipment of the gendarmes were taken by 
the Greek soldiers; the clock was recovered at the moment 
when it was being sold at the market and the arms were found 
later. Greek bands even had the audacity to approach the 
outskirts of the town and killed in one day eight peasants 
who were employed in sowing their fields. In consequence of 
all these facts and other ignoble doings, distrust increased 

85 



amongst the inhabitants and each thought only of securing 
his own safety. 

Following on a fresh aggression, I learnt that certain per- 
sons had defended themselves by firing on the Greek soldiers 
at the station of Erbeyli. The next day Greek forces at Ker- 
mendjik collected together 70 to 80 innocent inhabitants of 
the surrounding villages. The women and children were saved 
thanks to my intervention but out the 52 men, the 36 quite 
innocent youths were massacred with the bayonet in the sta- 
tion of Erbeyli itself and the twelve ithers old and ill were sent 
as prisoners to Aidin. 

This last ignominy having terrified the population of the 
commune to the highest pitch, it was difficult to prevent an 
exodus in mass and all the villages along the railway were 
completely evacuated by their inhabitants. Later on when the 
Greek columns concentrated at Aidin were reinforced, an im- 
portant detachment was sent to Kermendjik. The commandant 
of these forces had me imprisoned for no reason at the sta- 
tion. There, the Greek soldiers and Greek bandits acting in 
concert with them robbed me of all I had on me, taking even 
my shoes. I was horribly ill-treated, insulted and beaten du- 
ring two days. Meantime another group of assassins composed 
of Greek ruffians of the region and of the Hellenic soldiery, 
fell upon my house. They stole and pillaged furniture, money, 
jewelry all that I had been able to accumulate during my 
twenty years working career. My old mother, my wife were 
beaten, my daukhter wounded with a sword thrust; my little 
daughter of eight and my son of four years old, were killed 
under the eyes of their mother with bayonet wounds and un- 
thinkable tortures. Assaults on private houses, pillage, mas- 
sacre and torture were extended to the other inhabitants. A 
crowd of people, old men, women, children most of the villa- 
gers of Nechetie, Who were working in the fields or passing 
along the roads on each side of the railway after Balladdjik 
were all arrested by the Greek soldiers; the director of teleg- 
raphs of the commune was amongst them ; they were led away 
in a body and incarcerated in the Han d'Ismail Aigha at Ker- 

86 



mendji'k. The lack of all news as to the fate of these poor pe- 
ople forces the belief that they were also assassinated. 

During my arrest and at the time when those events were 
taking place, I was called upon to give some explanations to 
an English Colonel and to Mr. Hoder who had come to the 
station of Kermendjik to get an idea of the situation. I was 
taken before them. I recounted to them in detail the cowardly 
aggressions of which my person, my family and the inhabi- 
tants in general had been the objects : I explained to them the 
terror and the exodus of the population towards the moun- 
tains as a result of the insecurity and alleging the danger to 
which my own life was exposed I told them that I would not 
leave them nor the train in which they were. They took me 
with them and I arrived at Aidin with them. 

I made my report to the Sub-Prefecture and not finding 
means to return I remained that day at Aidin. The next day 
the offensive being taken by the Greek forces, there was a 
baatle between them and the population which defended the 
bridge of the Meandre-. I todk refuge and hid myself quite 
alone in the empty house that Moustaphe, exciseman at Ker- 
mendjik, possesses at Aidin. The fire lighted by the Greeks 
having reached this house also, I fled into the street where 
thanlk God I was not hit by the balls from the machine-guns 
which the Greeks turned on all those who attempted to fly 
from the fire. 

The Greeik forces in retreat after the battle of Meandre 
pillaged, set fire to, and completely destroyed the towns^ of 
KaraPounar and Kermendjik, the villages Reiss, Hizdr-Beyli, 
Sandonlkli, Mamoure-t-ul Hamid, Kipti-Muslim, Sinir Tekke, 
and massacred the whole population of these towns and villa- 
ges, old men, women, child ren without exception. Out of the 
12.000 inhabitants that the commune counted, the 1600 who 
not had the time or the means to fly were thus annihilated. 
The possessions and estates of those Who remained were pilla- 
ged and set on f ire ; thus they also are ruined. Those who were 
spared from the hellenic scourge could save only their lives; 

_ 87 



they took refuge in the zone occupied by the Italians in the 
communes and Kazas of iSobidje, Seuke, Tchine and to the 
south of Meandre. They are all in an indeseriibable state of 
misery and despair. And this comuna, the most thickly peop- 
led and the richest of the Sandjak, is no more than a great 
desert, a heap of ruins. 

In these conditions, as there no longer remained any fune- 
tions to exercise in the commune and my house besides 'being 
burnt, my belongings pillaged, my family dispersed and disap- 
peared, I left the commune and started to look for them. I 
found my family at Kotcharly and we are installed at Kir- 
Obassi, chief town of the Kaza of Tichne; from where I address 
this report to your Excellency. 

I 'beg you, Sir, to accept etc. 

The Governor of the Commune of Ine-iAbad 
Mehmet Emin. 



Protestation of the Turkish Inhabitants of the 
Regions devastated by the Greeks. 

We denounce to the civilised world the policy of extermi- 
nation of the Turkish element, practised, especially since the 
departure of the English representatives, Mr. Whitall and 
iLientenant Grant, by the Greeks and by the Hellenic authori- 
ties who have occupied the Sandjak of Aidin contrary to the 
decisions of the Powers. 

130 Turkish travellers who were forced to get out of the 
train at the station of Azizie were led to a ravine near the 
station where, after having first violated the women under 
the eyes of their husbands and parents, the Greeks massacred 
them all with incredible tortures. The Greeks set fire to all 
the towns, villages of the zone of occupation and killed, bur- 
ned alive or piled up in wells, women, children, old men, in 

88 



short all the Turks who fell into their hands. They assassi- 
nated on the way, along with other unfortunates, all the nota- 
bilities whom they took away from Nazilli and elsewhere; they 
assassinated in the open strett a crowd of poor people who had 
been arrested on futile pretexts and whom they pretended to 
be talking 1 to prison. They entered houses by force, violated 
women and young girls, killed the husbands and children; the 
functionaries and notabilities were not spared on any consi- 
deration. 

The wearing of hats was made compulsory for the non- 
mussulmans; cans of petrol were placed in different parts of 
the Turkish quarters; water was cut off from the mussulman 
quarters; special signs were put on the houses and shops of 
the non-mussulmans; all that foretold a general massacre of 

the Turkish population in the town of Aidin. 

\ 

On the 28th June the Hellenic troops without any reason 
attacked the out-post of the national forces which guarded 
the bridge of the Meandre. They retired intentionally, so as 
to 'give themselves up to the combat they had provoked in the 
town of Aidin. By placing machine-guns on the minarets and 
building's more or less elevated, by setting fire to the Turkish 
quarters, by employing ecen artillery in the town, they made 
the battle degenerate into a general massacre, The Greeks 
besides shot down with rifles or machine-guns posted at every 
corner the poor unfortunates, men women, and children who 
tried to escape from the flames ; many of them thus prevented 
from coming out were burned alive in their houses or carbo- 
nised under the ruins. As for the buildings which the fire had 
not reached they were all riddled by shot from the artillery 
and all who were inside were drilled or wounded. 

This murderous combat which lasted three days was by 
divine mercy put an end to by the hurried retreat of the Hel- 
lenic hordes before national forces inferior in numbers and 
equipment, iand the survivors of the massacres were thus sa- 
ved from the Hellenic ferocity. On the other hand, the Eng- 
lish, French, Italian, private persons, and the foreign official 



personalities and even the Greeks themselves can bear witness 
to the kindness with which the Turks ibehaved to the Greeks, 
to these very assassins who, barricaded in the church or in 
their houses, were expecting the just punishment of their ig- 
noble crimes. 

But the Hellenic hordes routed at Aidin, having received 
reinforcements from Smyrna and elsewhere, have returned to 
the charge and practise their crimes and their ignominy with 
more audacity than ever. These hordes have advanced upon 
Aidin burning, destroying, pillaging, killing on their passage 
all that remained all that had been able to survive the prece- 
ding massacre. 

The Mussulmans of Aidin and the region round it who 
were able to escape in time have taken refuge in the mounta- 
ins, the deserted parts of the valleys and in the Italian zone 
of occupation to the south of Meandre. The 95 % of the popu- 
lation of the Liva of Aidin are Turks. Does the civilised world 
approve of the barbarism of the Greeks and the massacres 
perpetrated by them in order to destroy this overwhelming 
majority? The Turkish population of Aidin had however con- 
ducted itself with benevolence towards the Christians in ge- 
neral and the Greeks who lived peacefully amongst us to this 
day. The mussulmans are persuaded that hummanity and the 
civilised Powers cannot approve of these barbarous practices 
unprecedented in history. 

To save the lives of hundreds of thousands of peaceable 
inhabitants who have taken refuge in the mountains and ne- 
ighbouring regions and who are in a state of indescribable des- 
titution and distress, we beg you to put a speedy end to the 
Hellenic occupation of the Sandjaik of Aidin. 

Here follow some hundreds of signatures of deputies, of 
members of the General Council, of the President and mem- 
bers of the Municipality. 



90 



Address presented by the population of Aidin. 

White awaiting every moment the evacuation of our country 
by the Greek troops, we observe with profound grief and reg- 
ret that our State and our people, who have abandoned the 
defence of their rights at the just decision of the peace con- 
ference are daily exposed to numerous atrocities. The Greeks, 
who found it necessary to evacuate the town of Nazilli, assas- 
sinated on leaving the town forty-two Mussulman notabilities. 
Up to the time theyleft Aidin they killed an incalculable num- 
ber of Mussulmans of which the English representative Mr. 
Hoder acquirest the conviction with his own eyes, and related 
in his reports. The popular troops of defence who had assem- 
bled at Aidin and the surroundings to prevent a great number 
of painful atrocities and who had proposed the evacuation of 
the town twelve days before, a proposal which had not been 
accepted, had to undergo at 12 km. from the town a steady 
fire from the official Greek troops; after the defence thus im- 
posed and the bloody battle which lasted three days the town 
was conquered. But the incendiary shells fired deliberately by 
the Greeks upon the Mussulman quarters during the battle 
had produced their effects. In particular the Hotel de Smyrne 
and several houses, notaJbly that of the ex-president of the 
municipality Ahmed Bey, were set on fire 'by means of rags 
soaked in petrol. The fire thus produced from four sides still 
continues without possibility of being extinguished. The re- 
treating forces accomplished not only such atrocities; shooting 
the unfortunate Mussulmans, women, children and old men 
who tried to come out of their houses to espace from the fire; 
nailing women to walls by their eyes ; assassinating young girls 
after having outraged them in presence of their parents; cut- 
ting off the breasts and arms of women and thrusting them 
into the sexual parts; but the same troops assassinated a large 
number of functionaries and notabilities who did not manage 
to hide them selves, they burnt with the same atrocious pro- 
ceedings all the Mussulman villages lying along the railway, 
among which : 

91 



Mechetie. ErfoeyH. 

Kadi-Keuy. Tekeli 

Emir-Agassi. Karaibagh. 

Yeni-^Keuy. Eumerbeyli. 

KizMja.-K.euy. Guermendjik. 

Ikiz-Dere. ffiairfoeyli. 

iKerankoua. Seuztekeli 

Ahir-Keuy. Reiss-tKeuy. 
Kara-Pounar. 

These same retreating forces having received reinforce- 
ments, tried to recapture AMin from the Mussulmans. Al- 
though the latter managed to save their lives 'by flying from 
the mountains, invaded the plain and massacred with their 
machu^guns a 'great number of the fugitives, women, and 
children. After a bloody battle lasting forty eight hours the 
town was cleared of enemies; but a considerable part of what 
remained of the town was set on fire by the latter. The ob- 
vious rights of the Mussulman population, reduced to have 
recourse to various means in order to save its life threatened 
by this .barbarous tyranny to which it will not be able to ac- 
custom itself for many reasons, cannot fail to attract the at- 
tention of the conference. We beg that effective measures may 
be taken against these painful atrocities which are always 
increasing, and that impartial mission may inquire into these 
events. Those who were able to espace, completely destitute, 
have taken refuge in the zone occupied 'by the civilised Italian 
government and, having fled from the fire, are reduced to 
living under trees and bushes in frightful misery. We beg that 
the obvious rights as well as the life and future of fifty to 
sixty thousand Mussulmans, who form the seven-eighths of 
the population may be assured. The seed of discord cast bet- 
ween -us cannot in any way affect the good relations establis- 
hed with the Greek race, and we shall continue to live on good 
terms as we have done fpr centuries. We have the honour to 
inform you that once the disastrous Greek occupation has 
ceased we shall resume the cordial relations in conformity 
with our national customs and sentiments. 

92 



Reports of the survivors of the Quarter of 
Debbagh at Aidin. 

On the 22nd of July 1919 at 8 o'clock in the morning, at 
the time When the Hellenic troops were fighting against the 
national forces outside the town, some Greek soldiers first of 
all set fire by means of oiled rags to the house of Yozgadli 
Hassan Effendi, situated in the quarter Debbagh, and filled 
with wood and dried herbs. 

The little Fatma Dinarli KM who tried to save herself by 
running out of the house, was thrust through with bayonets 
and thrown back into fire where she was burnt. In the same 
quarter, another girl Emine Hanoum, daughter of Hafiz Mous- 
tapha Effendi who was fleeing from the fire hi the same way 
was also wounded and prevented from going out. 

Other Greek soldiers and ruffians entered Ali Effendi's 
house. After having killed his two sons Djemal and Raghib, 
they set f ire to the house and incinerated amongst the ruins 
the corpses of these two unfortunates. 

They carried off Zehra and Ismet Hanoums the wife and 
daughter of Moustapha Effendi, who were hi the same house. 
To this day no news has (been received of them. The Greeks 
moreover set fire with incendiary Ibombs to the house of Pesh- 
temaldji Zade Houdayi Effendi and wounded his servant Ibra- 
him. Thus the whole quarter was burnt by the Greeks and tho- 
se who tried to escape were shot or thrown back into the fla- 
mes. So that in our quarter alone 1483 persons were shot, kil- 
led by the machine-guns or by bombs. 



Extracts from a report on the atrocities of Nazilli. 

The Greek troops of occupation suddenly began a retrea- 
ting movement on Thursday 19th of June at midnight. Going 
to all the houses of the Christians they ordered them to ac- 
company them declaring that the Turks would kill them. They 
assembled at two o'clock in the barracks square, disarmed the 

93 



Ottoman gendarmes in the neighbourhood of the barracks, 
and sending in front of them the whole Christian population 
and taking with them Kenan Bey who had been their prisoner 
for there days as well as about thirty Mussulmans whoso 
hands they had bound, they left Nazilli and started for Ak- 
teke. 

When morning came and everyone was stirring a national 
force was immediately organised and the defence of the town 
was entrusted to honourable personages, worthy of confidence 
who were charged to accomplish their patriotic and humane 
duty. To complete the restoration of order thus established, 
an attempt was made to telegraph to invite the regular Tur- 
kish troops of the neighbourhood; but this could not be done, 
the telegraph wires having been cut 'by the Hellenes and com- 
munication interrupted on all sides. 

In spite of that order was perfectly well maintained with 
the national forces which had been constituted. 

Later on the national forces led toy Hamdi Bey, as well 
as the cavalry placed under the orders of the commandant Hak- 
ki Bey having arrived, this tranquillity could ve extended to 
the villages and communes; the stolen property was in part 
recovered from the different places where it had been hidden 
and the rest was regained possession of Iby degrees. 

Though the occupation of the Caza of Nazilli by the Greek 
troops was accomplished without incident and was accepted 
with resignation and confidence in the justice of Europe, and 
though no material resistance was offered, yet from the day 
of the occupation, Greek soldiers attacked Mussulman women, 
and carried indecency to the point of committing acts such 
as would revolt the most obscene beings, as exhibiting their 
genital organs in the open street. They wounded the religious 
sentiments of the Mussulman population by crying to the 
muezzin who summoned them to prayer "Don't bray like an 
ass". 

The Hellenic commandant tolerated the robbery every day 
of one or two shops with the complicity ot the Greeks of the 

94 



country, the seizing of property without compensation, or 
again the deliberate emptying of sacks containing cereals. 
Every day several highly respected persons were arrested on 
futile pretexs like the formulas : "You do not desire the Hel- 
lenic occupation" "or else" You would have requested an Eng- 
lish. French or Italian occupation". Two days before withdra- 
wing the Greeks imprisoned without any right or reason, 
simply because they formed part of the honest and intellectual 
class, the retired commandant .Kemal Bey, the excise-man 
Chukri Bey, Hafiz Mehmed, Hadji Mehmed, the tax-gatherer 
Riza and about thirty persons. On their departure they took 
away all the prisoners having bound their hands, except Chuk- 
ri Bey who was necessarily released as an employe of the ad- 
ministration : Kenan Bey and Hadji Hamdi were severely 
wounded. The others, as well as the numerous Mussulmans 
who were arrested on the way were massacred and their corp- 
ses flung into ditches. 

(signed) The Mufti of Nazili : Salih. 

The Mayor : Mehmed Emin. 

The Lau'yer : Ilharai. 



Addendum. 

1. The train going from Denizli to Smyrna was stopped 
at Ephesus and the 90 Turkish travellers, men and women 
who were in it ordered to descend. And there in the open street, 
under the eyes of their husband, father or brother, the wo- 
men without distinction of age were violated, and then all the 
travellers were massacred. Amongst the latter the Lieutenant 
Salih Effendi, a native of Tripoli, and a captain whose name 
is not known, and to whom the Hellenic authorities had given 
safe conduct, were killed with specially atrocious tortures. 

2. Before the battle, the wife of the lawyer Enver Bey 
coming from her garden was maltreated by Greek soldiers, 
she was even stript of her garments and her servant Assie 
was violated. 

95 



3. The two tax j gatherers Mustapha and Ali Effendi were 
killed hi the following manner : their arms were bound behind 
their backs with wire and their heads were battered and burst 
open with (blows from the butt end of a gun. 

4. During the firing of the town eleven children, six little 
girls and five boys, fleeing from the flames, were stopped by 
Greek soldiers in the (Ramazan Pacha quarter, and thrown into 
a burning Jewish house near bridge, where they were burnt 
alive. This fact is confirmed on oath by the retired comman- 
dant Hussein Hussni lEffendi who saw it. 

'5. The clock-maker Ahmed Effendi and his son Sadi were 
arrested and dragged out of their shop. The son had his eyes 
put out and was then killed in the court of the Greek Church 
but Ahmed Effendi has been no more heard of. 

6. At the market, during the fire, two unknown people 
were wounded by bayonets, then bound together, thrown into 
the fire and burnt alive. 

The Greeks killed also many Jews. These are the names 
of some : 

Mopssa Malki, shomaker killed. 

Bohor Levy, tailor " 

Bohor Israel, coM>ler 

Isaac Calivo, shoemaker 

David Aroguete n 

Moussa Lerosse " 

Gioia Katan " 

Meryem MaM 

Soultan Ghardlb " 

Isaac Sabah wounded. 

Moche Fahmi " 

David Sabah 

Moise Bensignor killed. 

Sarah Bendi 

Jacob Jaffe wounded. 

Asian Halegna 

96 



APPENDIX. 

1. It is established by various witnesses that a woman 
of the quarter Terziler had an arm cut off and thrust into her 
sexual organ, and one breast cut off and put in her mouth. 

2. The corpse of another woman, naked and the right side 
burnt, and with bullet wounds below the breasts, was seen 
near Pechtemaldji Tcherkesse by Captain Behaeddine Effendi 
of the 56th division. 

3. The corpse of a man whose feet and wrists were bound 
with telegraph wires, and who had been killed by having the 
arteries of his legs and arms cut, was brought to the court of 
the Head-Quarters of the division. 

4. A Mussulman was butchered in the justice hall of the 
building belonging to the Hellenic Commandment at Aidin. 
This poor "man, whose identity could not 'be established had 
his head cut off on a chair with inicredilble tortures. The thing 
was seen by Captain Hussni Bey of the Staff of the 57th di- 
vision. 

5. The waiter of the Hotel de iSmyrne, Hassan and one 
of the guests Moustapha Effendi were killed while fleeing 
from the fire. Their corpses were shown to the English Agent, 
Hoder by the proprietor of the Hotel 

6. Quarter iDukkan Eunii; they entered the house of 
Hadji Yahya Effendi, an old man, one of the best known no- 
tabilities of Aidin and after having taken all the money and 
valuables he possessed, they butchered him with his wife. 

7. Arabe-Hadji-Hafiz of the iKozOibi quarter, assasina- 
ted while going to his field. 

8. In the same quarter, Hadji Rachid Effendi and his 
wife were killed while flying from the fire. 

9. Zehra Hanoum sister of Ahmed Effendi proprietor of 
the Hotel de Smyrne killed on fleeing from the fire zone. 

97 



10. The wife and mother of Moustapha Effendi, employe 
at the law-court of Cheri, killed in the same circumstances. 

11. The lawyer Bdhem Bey, the 'best known notability of 
the town, belonging 1 to an old family, was taJken from his 
house with his wife and his five children to the Greek quar- 
ter. And there, his four children aged one, three, seven and 
nine years were cruelly butchered and torn to pieces. -Bdhem 
Bey and his wife were saved (by the arrival of the, Turkish for- 
ces .which occupied Aidin. 

12. Kadi Keuylu Mehmed Ali Effendi, of the Ramazan 
Pacha quarters was killed by bayonet wounds and his corpse 
thrown into his own house, which was on fire. 

13. The two brothers Djemal and Rag'hiib beys, sons of 
Ali Effendi after having their eyes put out, were killed by the 
bayonet and their corpses burnt. 

14. Nakie Hanoum, aged twelve years and daughter of 
Cheikh Aziz, another notability of AMin, was 'killed in trying 
to escape from the fire in the Debaghli quarter. 

15. The doctor Ismail Bey, his wife and his two children, 
aged from two to five years, were led by force to the Greek 
quarters, where after having submitted Madame Ismail Bey 
to the worst outrages, slaughtered the children before their 
parents, the poor couple were in their turn shot near the bridge 
of NaziUi. 

16. The sister of Hussein Effendi of the bureau of military 
circumscription was violated and then her throat was cut. 

17. In the quarter Dulkkan Eunu some Greeks broke into 
the house of Kildji Zade Ismail Effendi and after having outra- 
ged his wife butchered her with her young children. 

18. Hafiz Emin Effendi of the same quarter killed. Of the 
same quarter Hafiz Ahmed Effendi, son of Hadji Yahya Ef- 
fendi whose murder along with his wife was related above, 
was also killed. 

98 



19. The retired Lieutenant Adali Zia Bey and his brother 
assassinated and his wife baptised by force and called Maria 
was outrageously violated and killed. 

20. Hassib, son of Moustapha, of Orta Mahalle killed in 
fleeing from the fire. 

21. In the Djouma quarter, Balikdji Oghlou Suleiman and 
his wife murdered in their house. 

22. Of the same quarter Hammal Kadry 'killed in his house. 

23. Of the same quarter Ali bin Hadji Suleimen killed in 
his house. 

24. The daughter of Hussny Bey (killed. 

25. In the quarter Kemer, Albdi and 'Dana Mehmed were 
taken from their house, and after having put out their eyes, 
out off then* noses and cut the sikin from their faces, the Greek 
soldiers killed them with the bayonet. 

26. Imam Qgfolou Mehmed .killed. 

27. Ibrahim, servant of Houdayi Effiendi Ml'led. 

28. At Duikkan Eunu, Greeks entered the house of the 
grocer Mehmed, violated his wife and daughter and killed all 
three. 

29. The woman Zeliha killed at AJk Mesdjid. 

30. Aiche, the daughter of Hadji Mehmed killed. 

31. At Djouma, the charcoal-burner Metomed killed with 
his mother aged 60 years, whom he was carrying away on his 
back to save her from the fire. 

32. Dervish Arab a poor seller of amulets, native of Ben- 
ghazi was killed at Tchaouch iKeupru. 



99 



Report of the doctor Mazhar Bey, inhabitant of Aidiii. 

The Greeks learning that the inhabitants of the surroua 
dings of Aidin al'anmed and excited by the acts of the Greeks 
at Aidiin, had taken up arms with the intention of defending 
themselves, advanced in the direction of the Meandre where a 
battle began which gradually reached as far as the town. Ta- 
king advantage of that, the Greeks turned the machine-guns 
which they had placed on the minarets and high places, aga- 
inst the houses, kindled fires with the aid of rags soaked in 
petrol and of a blue substance which they used, and caused 
the poor women and children who tried to flee from the fire 
to be shot by Greek soldiers posted for that purpose. The mur- 
ders and violations whose reality is proved by the evidence of 
the emigrants who were able to take refuge at Denizli have 
been summed up in this second list : 

1. The clerk of the religious court Moustapha Effendi 
saw two evzones and two native Greeks coming out of the 
house of Hadji Yahia Elffendi after having cut the latter to 
pieces with their bayonets along with his wife, his son and his 
daughter laden with a basket containing pieces of gold and 
a bag containing bank-notes. 

2. The same clerk coming out into the street accompanied 
by his wife and his mother because the fire had caught the 
next-door house, his wife was wounded in the chest and his 
mother in the leg by bullets, fired by the Hellenic soldiers, and 
are to-day being treated at Denizli. The aforesaid have been 
seen by the commandant Labon, French military representa- 
tive. 

3. In the same quarter two Greek soldiers penetrated into 
the house of Aiche native of Ourla, to carry off his daughter, 
who is very beautiful. She not being there, the Greeks mur- 
dered her mother. 

4. The woman Zeliha of the quarter of Djouma was killed 
with bayonet wounds in the open street. 

100 



5. Again in the quarter of Djuma they carried off the 
daughter of the grocer Djenan and 'killed the latter and his 
wife. 

6. They killed in the street with bayonets Hadjer, the 
wife of Ahmed, native of Sparta and living in the quarter of 
Djuma, as well as her child aged one year and a half, who 
were both fleeing from the fire. 

7. At Denizli at present undergoing treatment, there is 
the daughter of the shoemaker Hadji Mehmed, native of Ed- 

' remid, Aiche who is seriously wounded in the chest. The latter 
has been seen by the French military representative the Com- 
mandant Labon, who aided her pecuniarily. 

8. The wife of the charcoal-burner Mehmed, of the Djuma 
quarter, aged seventy years and impotent, whom her husband 
was carrying on his back in order to fly from the fire was 
killed by a ball, and he himself was slightly wounded. 

9. Two native Greeks and two Hellenic soldiers having 
penetrated into the house of Hafiz Ismail, son of Fildji of the 
quarter of Dukfkan-Eunii, stole all his money and murdered 
his wife and child, and also the chemist of the municipality 
Essad, his wife and his sister-in-law, who were visiting them. 

10. In the quarter of Djuma the door of the house of the 
ex-forester Arif Bey having been destroyed iby means of a bomb 
he himself was butchered. 

11. As the mother, the son-in-law and the young child of 
Loutfi, soap-merchant, had come out into the street to escape 
the fire, the mother and the young child were killed. At the 
same moment the two children of Faldji-Arab also fell victims 
to the balls. 

12. In the quarter of Djuma Hafiz, son of Ishac, was mur- 
dered, his money stolen and his house set on fire. 

18. In the quarter of Djuma, the wife of the cook Mehmed 
was assassinated and .his daughter wounded with bayonets, 

101 



after having 'been violated. In the same quarter Mehmed Is- 
mail, son of Pazarli was murdered in his house. 

14. In the quarter of Djuma, Hadidje, wife of the chest- 
nutseller Mehmed, was outraged and killed. 

15. In the quarter of Djuma Mehmed Bey of Sultan-Hissar, 
was killed in his house. 

16. In the quarter of Djuma Helvadji-Qglou-Islail, was 
killed in the house. 

17. In the quarter of Djuma Haf iz Emin Effendi was killed 
in his house. 

18. In the quarter of Djuma AlWDede was murdered and 
his house burnt. 

19. In the quarter of Djuma Kemedji-Hafiz was murdered 
and his house burnt. 

20. In the quarter of Djuma, the tailor Kara^Ahmed and 
his son Mehmed were butchered. 

21. The shoemaker Noury of the quarter of Djuma was 
murdered and his house set on fire. 

22. The saddler Mehmed of the quarter of Djuma and his 
family were assassinated. 

23. Suleiman Effendi of the quarter of Djuma guardian of 
the Banque Agricole was assassinated and his house set on 
fire. 

24. Tchatkirlarin Saline of the quarter of Djuma was ou- 
traged and then murdered. 

25. Hafiz, native of Stan^Keuy and living in the quarter 
of Djuma was assassinated. 

26. In the quarter of Djuma, Djiguer^Oglou-Ali, his wife, 
his son and his son-in-law were assassinated and burnt. 

27. Zia Bey, native of Kouch-Ada and living in the quarter 
of Djuma and his brother were assassinated and burnt in their 
house. 

102 



28. Tezkiahtar Oglou, of the quarter of Djuma, his wife 
and his daughter were killed while flying from the fire. 

29. Were assassinated the blacksmith Moustapha, native 
of Kemer, Karavali Hassan of the quarter of Mechroutiet and 
his brother Arslan and Moustapha son of Ibrahim and his bro- 
ther of the same quarter. 

30. Were assassinated Hodja-Kizi Hafize, his daughter, 
the milkman Dourmouch, his wife Emine, Hadidje wife of the 
gardener of AM-Tchaouch, all of the quarter of Orta; Zelihan 
of the quarter of Djuma. The daughter of the latter, wounded, 
is under treatment hi the hospital of Nazilli. 

31. In the quarter of Tchicourt : Hafiz, son of Kalbour, 
his daughter Merieme, his six sons Moustapha, Tchakir- 
Osman, Rozdoganli-Ahmed-Tchaouch, Osman Yuklu Ibrahim, 
Bourgas-Mehmed, Moustapha son of Gheuk-Oglan as well as 
his daughter, his son and his wife, whose body was ripped 
open, were assassinated and burnt. 

32. Aiche, daughter of Defterdjv Doudou, daughter of 
Guiridli and Hussni were outraged, then killed and their bo- 
dies ripped open. 

33. Kara-Oemirdji and his family of five persons of the 
quarter of Kemer; Moustapha, son of Tchakir, the wife of Meh- 
med AM, son of Tchiftdji, of the quarter of Tchicourt; Dana 
'Mehmed AM, of the quarter of Kemer, whose cars and nose 
were cut off, were assassinated. 

34. In the quarter of Tchicourt : Hassan-Tchaonch Meh- 
med^SaMh, Mehmed, son of Hadje^Salih, Emdne, daughter of 
Hamourdji, the mother and daughter of Hekim-Guelin, Hadidej, 
daughter of Emirler were 'killed and burnt.. 

35. Were killed, at Dukkan Eunu : Mehmed, son of Tcha- 
kir and his wife Djemile; at Tchicourt : Fatma, daughter-in- 
law of Nebi, the husband of Zahire, Kadaifdji Suleiman; at 
Kemer : Karasli Suleiman, his wife his daughter and his sons, 
Hussein, son of Dagli Hussein, Fatma, mother of Arpazli-Og- 

103 



lou; at KoutbinAla : the porter Kadir, Mouitab Ibrahim; at 
Djama : Emir Aiche, daughter of balikdji, the wife of the 
chancoal-bumer Mehmed. 

36. Were killed in the quarter of Hassan : Mehmed, son 
of Arab-Ogliu, his two sons and his daughter; at Tchicourt : 
Abdurrahman, native of Ikiz-Dere, Hassan de Konieh, Meh- 
med, son of KaranAli, his wife and son, Hodja Youssouf Ef- 
fendi and his daughter Fatma wife of Resoul-Oglou ; Ismail 
'of Baram was wounded. 

37. In the quarter of Koufcbi-Ala : Kildji Ibrahim; 'in the 
quarter of Kainak : Arab^SaHih; in the quarter of Kozdibi : 
the taxigatherer HaJbil Effendi; in the quarter of Orta : the 
wife of the tanner Abdullah ; in the quarter of Dukkan j Eunoi 
the muezzin iMolla Mouhsin; in the quarter of Bagdjilar : the 
lawyer Mehmed Hilmi Effendi; in the quarter of Koutbi-Ala : 
Oherif Ali, native of Tepedjilk; in the quarter of Bagdjilar : 
Mehmed Emin Effendi father of Kiamil Effendi native of Ka- 
di^Keuy; in the quarter of Ramazan Pacha : Mehmed Effendi 
son of Anbarli, the notability Nedjiib Bey had their dwellings 
pillaged, their money stolen, and assassinated, were burnt in 
their houses. 

38. Were assassinated : the chemist Ali Effendi, his two 
sons and his daughter, Aiche the adopted daughter of the 
Oheih Aziz Effendi, the mother and son of Ibrahim Effendi 
native of Kouch-Ada. 

39. Hafiz Halil, of the quarter Djuma, fleeing with his 
wife and his children, a ball shattered the arm of his son Meh- 
nied aged seven years who died later at the charity hospital. 
His daughter Latif, aged eleven years, was wounded in the 
left groin and was seen at Denizli by the French military rep- 
resentative Labore : Out of four women and children assem- 
bled at the place where the fusillade was directed upon them, 
twelve fell dead on this spot; some of them who were able to 
flee, wounded, were treated at the hospital of Nazilli. 

40. The bodies of Emin, son of AtdjaM-bhvOglou, Ahmed, 
son of Karchi Yakali and his son, of the quarter of Karadja- 

104 



Ahmed; Minaredji Moustapha, his mother Fatma, and his 
daughter, of the quarter of IKaradja Ahmed were found cut 
in quarters at the place called Kepez. 

41. At the same place were found the corpses of seven 
Mussulmans whose names are unknown. 

42. The wife Hadidje and the daughter Hourie of Salih- 
Effendi of the quarter of IKaradja- Ahmed were carried off by 
neighbours who were Greeks and their corpses were found 
having been ripped open. 



Another report of the doctor Mazhar Bey 
living in Aidin. 

1. On the pretext that they had conversed, before the 
occupation, with two Italian officers who had come to visit 
Aidin, Chefik Safi Bey, Kiamii Emin Bey and Eumer Bey were 
imprisoned and tortured. 

2. The muezzins were prevented from issuing their calls 
to prayer and were beaten. The muezzins of the ancient and 
of the new mosque of Riza Pacha were (beaten and had their 
watches stolen. 

3. A Greek officer wished to take to some place unknown, 
Mehmed Effendi, son of Ahmed Effendi Kavaszade who was 
at the Casino. Being young he was afraid and refused politely. 
The officer split open his head, and beat his brother as well 
as the stocklbroclker's clerk Noury Effendi. Although the Greek 
commandant annouced that this officer had been degraded he 
is still to be seen employed at his post. 

4. In the neighbourhood of GhumBagtche the wife and 

daughter of the lawyer Bey were outraged and had their 

jewels stolen. 

5. The wife of the upholsterer effendi was outraged 

in her house. 

105 



6. The wife Effendi attacked in her vineyard. 

7. The daughter of was carried off from her house 

during the night and underwent outrages. 

8. The youths wearing hair-caps or long boots were hor- 
rtibly tortured, on the pretext that they belonged to committes. 
The prisoners received neither bread nor water for several 
days. 

9. The merchants who did not sell their goods at the pri- 
ces fixed by the Greek officers and soldiers were imprisoned. 
Amongst them was the matchmaker Ahmed and his son the 
shoemaker Ismafl. 

10. At the vegetable market a Hellenic doctor having 
come to the rescue of the butcher Ihrahim, whom some native 
Greeks were beating a soldier evzone beat the officer and car- 
ried off Ibrahim whom he killed with a revolver, in sight of 
hundreds of people, on the bridge of Nazilli. 

11. The commissary of the municipality Moustapha Effen- 
di, the driver of the rubbish cart Ali baba, were killed on the 
/bridge of Nazilli. 

12. Arabe Hadji Haf iz of the quarter of Kosti, who was 
returning from his vineyard was killed at the entrance of his 
house. 

13. Vehbi, son of Kouleohinli Ibrahim, who was carrying 
wood was killed at Pounar-foachi. 

' 14. The Hellenic governor and his two aides de camp ha- 
ving seen some Hellenic soldiers, beat the porter Ali to death 
at the market, the aides de camp rewarded the soldiers by 
taking their arms. 

15. The Deputy Director of Public Funds was beaten be- 
fore the government buildings by evzone soldiers accompanying 
an officer. 

16. Having decreed a state of siege and collected the arms 
the native Greeks were armed. Priests from Tire and the sur- 

106 



roundings walked about with armed Greeks in the market. 
Several armed Christians who obviously were not Anatolians 
strolled about in the Mussulman quarters. 

17. The Hellenic soldiers who evacuated Nazilli blew to 
pieces with machine guns at Kiosk thirty eight Mussulmans 
whom they had taken at Nazilli, except three of them who 
were able to fly and save themselves. 

18. They assassinated eleven inhabitants of Kiosk, two 
women and a child amongst them, whom they met in the neigh- 
bourhood. 

19. At Oumourlou and the surroundings they killed four 
and wounded six persons. They set fire to the building situated 
on the route Oumourlou-Aidin. 

20. The brother of the commissary Mehmed Bffendi, Ali 
Effendi was assassinated while working in his garden. The 
Greek commandant forbade his remains to be brought into 
the town. 

21. They assassinated, and threw out of the train thirty 
eight Mussulmans, whom they were taking from the, Wlayet 
of Erbeyli and Deghirmendjik to be questioned, and also ten 
travellers. 

22. They murdered eight old men who had not been able 
to flee with the Mussulmans of Kara-Pounar, and set fire to 
the village. The cattle were taken away to Aidin, and distri- 
buted among the Greeks. 

23. The villages situated in the neighbourhood of Aidin, 
of Yeni^Keuy, Kadi^Keuy, Eude-Imry, Kizildja-Kepy, were set 
on fire, their inhabitants massacred and the cattle carried off 
to AMn. 

24. The Mudir of the commune of Kermendjik was impri- 
soned and beaten. They tortured his family in order to get his 
money and jewels and wounded his daughter in the head. 

107 



The frightful atrocities committed without reason during 
the occupation of Smyrna by the Greek troops had extremely 
moved the inhabitants of Aidin and the announcement of the 
occupation of Aidin itself added to their affliction painful 
fears. They thought, in presence of this accomplished fact, 
and in their anxiety not to share the dreadful fate of Smyrna, 
to receive the troops of occupation with great calm and dignity. 
And indeed it was thus they acted. They were not left long in 
douibt. After the occupation a great number of honourable and 
well-lknown young men began to be arrested. The native Greeks, 
who already before the occupation had Ibegun to give open proof 
of animosity towards the Mussulmans, went beyond all bounds 
and began, in concert with the Hellenic soldiers to tear off 
the head-dresses of the Mussulmans at the market and in the 
streets, to insult their nationality and their religion. Going 
still further, they warned some Armenians and all the Israeli- 
tes who still wore the Fez, that they must wear hats in order 
to avoid the massacre of the non^Mussulmans. Istamat Ef f en- 
di, member of the tribunal, and the Israelitish notablity Bo- 
hor Effendi who had received this warning addressed comp- 
laints in the presence of a group of Mussulmans to the com- 
mandant of the Hellenic troops of occupation. In spite of the 
commandant having sworn on his honour as a soldier, and 
promised in a declaration addressed to the people, which he 
read at the government buildings, that he would punish the 
evil doers amongst the soldiers, and that he would prevent 
thenceforward the renewal of the infamies practised on the 
Mussulmans, and at which he was as much affected as they 
themselves, the offences against life and honour increased, the 
number of those who disappeared in a single day exceeded a 
hundred. I have divided into two parts the heartrending atro- 
cities and impudicities, of which I was myself witness, or that 
I have established from the evidence of hundreds of witnesses ; 
I have inscribed hi the first list those, that one thought fit to 
inflict on the persecuted population of Aidin, which had pre- 
served a calm attitude, and in the second the crimes committed 
after the battle. 



108 



Villages destroyed. 



The following villages of the valley of Aidin, one of the 
richest and most prosperous regions in the world are comple- 
tely burnt and destroyed by Greek hordes : 



Kara-Pounar. 

Kara-Bagh. 

Nechetie. 

Sinir-Teke. 

Hidirbeyley. 

Eumerbeyly. 

ReissnKeuy. 

Kerankova. 

Ikiz-Dere. 

Kizildja^Keuy. 

Ahir-Keuy. 

Eymir. 

Yeni^euy. 

Abdurrahman. 

Altikeuylu. 

Tahtadji. 

Bey^Keuy. 

Tchiksouret. 

Hadji-Aly. 

Virankapan. 

Sandikly. 

Arabkapaussy. 

IcMkly, 

Osmanyorgui. 

Tepedjik. 

Tcihei'kes-Keuy. 

Imakly-iKeuy. 

Sertche-Keuy. 

Tamalan. 

Pounarderessy. 

Kala^Keuy. 

Imam-^Keuy, 



KadinKeuy. 

Osmonyuki. 

Seuztekely. 

Tekely. 

Balta^Keuy. 

Demir-iAgassy. 

Guulhissar. 

Bartdjik. 

KilisnKeuy. 

DerenKeuy. 

Ahres-IKeuy. 

NaMy. 

Kizildja-Pounar. 

Mamouret-ul-hamidie. 

Hadji-iOsinaniAJbassy. 

KirlynFetwa. 

Karabach. 

Kemer-Achkly. 

AbdaUar. 

Kutch-uk-Gueurenler. 

Hadji^Keurtler. 

Altgueuyly. 

Balatdjik. 

Kilissa-iKeuy. 

Mehmedler. 

Uzumly-Hamidler. 

Achaghi-Balta^Keuy. 

Thaghbalissa. 

Emir^Beyly. 

Andon^Aigha. 

Siksor. 

Erkek^Keuy. 



109 



Danichmen. Deurt^Keuy. 

Kalfa^Keuy. Kara^Agatchly. 

Kodja^Keuy. Arzoular. 

Ohamry. Issa. 

Tdhechte Osman Yoly. Sighirlar. 

Tchariklar. Guumuc'luKeuy. 



AT DENtZLt. 

Protestation of the Greek. and Armenian Religious 

Chiefs of Denizli remitted to the High Commissioner 

of the Entente in Turkey. 

The offences committed by the Hellenic occupying forces 
in the region of Aidin 'and its neighbourhood constitute crimes 
of an atrocity inconceivable and without parallel in history. 
Villages and towns of considerable importance, immense riches 
and thousands of innocent human beings have been given wit- 
hout mercy as a prey to the flames. The ravages of this mur- 
derous hand which continues to perpetrate horrible crimes are 
acquiring a greater extension, whose fatal consequences thre- 
aten public safety and harmony existing between the different 
elements of the country. We, who for more than six hundred 
years lived happily under the shield of the Ottoman Empire, 
cannot tolerate the continuance of such criminal acts. While 
the Hellenes are spreading horror by their crimes quite close 
to us, we are enjoying the (benefits and the high protection 
and aid of the Ottoman Government and not one of us has been 
the object of the slightest attack. 

It is with horror and indignation that we reprove the mis- 
dieeds of this Hellenic force of occupation, whose sole object 
is to pursue a policy of extermination in the country. 

110 



In the name of humanity and of public safety we appeal 
to the high benevolence of the Great Powers 'begging them to 
take into serious consideration, so as to put a stop it as soon 
as possible, this horrible carnage. 

Locum tenons of the Metropolitan and President of the 
Greek Community of Denizli, 

The Prelate, HRISSOSTOMOS. 

Locum tenens of the Metropolitan of the Armenian 
Community, 

The Prelate, BABKEN. 



Circular of the Ottoman League, dated May 31st 1919. 
Sub. No 20. 

The flagrant contradiction existing between the declara- 
tions of the High Commissioners of the Entente at Constanti- 
nople relating to the temporary character of the military lan- 
ding at Smyrna, and the categorical reply of Venizelos to Bog- 
hos Noulbar as well as the grandiloquent proclamations of the 
commandants of the Greek detachments hailing as an accomp- 
lished fact the return of this town to her so-called mother-co- 
untry; the continual adivance of the Hellenic larmy in the Hin- 
terland of the vilayet; the occupation of Torbali, of Aidin and 
of Magnesie; the massacres, the deportations and the arbitrary 
arrests of Turks by the Hellenic troops, who after having in 
the most cruel fashion stifled ab ovo the legitimate attempts 
at resistance, seek to mislead public opinion by alleging that 
they meet with no opposition; all those recent facts make it 
our duty to note the lies and baseness of which the Mussul- 
mans are still victims and to draw once more and more seri- 
ously than ever, the attention of Europe and of America to a 
state of things likely to engender grave perturbations in the 
East. 

A 
Ill 



Grece, Who, as even the most ardent Hellenists allow, does 
not dispose of an up to date personal government not of an 
administrative framework adequate for her own territory of 
before 1912 and who lives herself under foreign protection, 
could not without danger for the tranquillity of the Mussul- 
man world extend her domination over an Asiatic territory 
inhabited by a million and a half of Turks as against only three 
hundred thousand Greeks. 

The systematic extermination of the Turks of Thessaly, 
of Macedonia and the Islands, of whom more than a million 
have disappeared in the space of twenty years, not counting 
those who have been forced to emigrate to Anatolia; the pro- 
posal officially made by Venizelos, accepted and partly exe- 
cuted, to exchange these mussulman populations with the 
Greeks of the sea-fooard of Asia^Minor, the quite recent mas- 
sacres of Mussulmans in Crete which excite the indignation 
even of the Greek newspapers and the 'murder of hundreds 
of Turkish students at iSmyrna give unfortunately only too 
striking proof of the notorious incapacity of the Hellenes to 
administer Mussulmans especially and the absolute incompa- 
tibility of their political regime With the racial existence of the 
Turks. 

Particularly in a province like that of Smyrna which the 
TurJks constitute nearly the four fifths of the population, cul- 
tivators and possessors of the soil for nine centuries that 
is to say from a period dating from long before tihe Ottoman 
conquest it is utterly impossible that the latter should tole- 
rate under any from whatever, not only the domination but 
even a mere Hellenic intervention. Should this be attempted 
the inevitable working of social dynamics would insure the 
restoration of our rights; but that would necessarily imply 
immense sufferings for the peoples, which no doubt it is the 
desire of the Conference to spare them. 

The Turks of Smyrna and Aidin are of all the elements of 
the Empire the most jealous of their independence, so much 
so that the Ottoman governments themselves have often had 

112 



difficulty in dealing with them. If the slightest doulbt could 
subsist in the mind of the Conference as to the proportion of 
Turks and Greeks who people' this vilayet, we should demand 
an impartial plebiscite. The result of which could but confirm 
the overwhelming numerical superiority of the Turks. 

Even the temporary occupation of Smyrna as well as of 
her Hinterland by the Hellenes will create a never-failing 
source of conflicts of every kind and of permanent anarchy 
for all Asia-Minor of which this port is the indispensable na- 
tural outlet and the principal gate to the Mediterranean; all 
the principles invo ked by the conference in favour of Dantzig 
and of Fiume argue with greater reason for the maintenance 
of Smyrna under Turkish rule. 

Besides the mere presence of Hellenic troops on Ottoman 
territory exposes all the Greeks to the inappeasable reproba- 
tion of a numerous Turkish population saturated with the spi- 
rit of hatred and vengeance which characterises especially 
with regard to the Hellenes, the millions of Mussulmans of 
Thessaly, Crete, Macedonia and Epire who after having endu- 
red there indescribable martyrdom and the most frightful 
persecutions recorded in part in the Carnegie report have 
not been able to do otherwise than expatriate themselves and 
emigrate to Anatolia under the most miserable conditions. 

The disorders which were cited with hue and cry to bring 
about the Greek landings are pretexts which have no real exi- 
stence; but it is certain that the ostentatious presence of Greek 
troops provokes at this moment the most bloody disorders 
which the government and Venizelist press now think it their 
duty to conceal. 

Hellenic imperialism in the East, since the independence 
of that nation till the annexations of Thessaly and of Crete, 
has never been able to exercise itself except with the aid of 
the tutelary intervention of some protecting Power. Thus the 
Turks are persuaded that the Greeks will not dare undertake 
anything if Europe wilhdraws from them her encouragement 

- 113 



and support.. The hope given to the Greeks of dominating the 
Turks, whilst flattering the megolomiania of the former and 
exasperating the latter tracked to their last refuge, would 
henceforth render, illusory all attempt at a common existence 
for these two elements condemned however geographically, 
to live together or as neighbours. 

Feeling these dangers as Ottomans and with the conscious- 
ness of, and regret for all the misfortunes of the past we ear- 
nestly beg the Peace Conference to prevent future misfortunes 
still greater, fhy ordering the re-emlbarkment of the Greek 
troops without delay; and as further proof of the earnest cha- 
racter of this respectful and sorrowful warning, we are for- 
warding a copy of this appeal to all the representatives of 
world opinion. 



Appeal published by the Bureau the July 1919. 
The Greeks at Smyrna. 

The occupation of Smyrna by the Greek troops revolting 
in itself has given rise to such inhuman acts, that the cons- 
cience of every sensible and intelligent person is revolted. 

Hardly debarked the army which was supposed to assure 
or der gave way to the worse crimes : chained wounded, were 
precipitated into the sea and the schoolboys who refused to 
cheer Venizelos were shot. That was at the beginning : since 
then the Hellenes have done better. 

Their conduct was so outrageous that French and British 
Officers horrified at the action of those vile allies of the last 
hour, and listening to their conscience declared that the crimes 
committed were worse than 'anything heard of before and that 
fifty thousand Turks, had been done to death by the undiscip- 
tined Hellenic troops. 

114 



But alas ! that is far from being the real number. The num- 
ber of crimes given were those one could not hide. They were 
committed in the town of Smyrna and her suburbs to every- 
body's knowledge. At Aidin, Ischesme, Carabouroum. Vourla. 
Bergamus and particularly at Hirmen. 

The crimes surpassed everything imaginable. But whan 
a quantity owing to the sly Greeks have been hidden. 

They have taken in fact great care to hide the truth from 
the foreigners : Young Turkish girls they have themselves 
assassinated are exhibited as a proof of Turkish savagery. 
They thus show proofs which are false. The day when the oc- 
cupation of Smyrna is far behind, we shall ask that full light 
be thrown on these happenings. For the moment we ask im- 
partial persons and correspondents of papers, to visit the 
unoccupied districts of the Vilayet of iSmyrna.. They will see 
lots of families without shelter, turned out of their homes 
dying on the streets and on the roads from want of food and 
medicine. It is there, that their correspondents will see for 
themselves what our enemies are capable of Two thousand 
refugees, victims of an inconceivable megolomania are actually 
exhausted in the vilayet of Brussa. They are expecting day by 
day to return to their liberated country. Others have taken 
refuge in the zone occupied by the Italian troops, pending their 
return home. The Hellenic troops have gone to Smyrna without 
the remotest right even without the right of conquest; with 
the pretext of assuring order. And the result has been to turn 
the richest province of Turkey into a bloody desert. 

Greece has proved, she was not worthy of this mission. 
Papers like the "Morning Post" the "Information" and the 
Italian press in general, prove these facts. 

It is thus of the utmost necessity that this painful situ- 
ation should cease. Peace in the near East is indispensable for 
the whole world, and can only be had, by putting an end to 
the Greek occupation. The prudent and late collaboration of 
Greece, is surely not worth the sacrifice of hundreds and tho- 
usands of human lives. 

115 



More than once during the world war has Europe proved 
the interest she took in human lives. 

Would it not be right for her to take the same steps to 
procetc the Turks iff Aidin, victims of such awful crimes ? These 
people . (who perhaps have the misfortune of being Moslems) 
are they not worthy in their capacity of living creatures, of 
such a protection. 

What we simply cannot understand is the silence of the 
British Government, the British Empire being the Largest Mos- 
lem Empire. 



Appeal published by the Bureau the 20th October 1919. 

Appeal to the Great Powers and to the World's 
Opinion in Favour of the (Refugees of Smyrna. 

Winter is here, as severe in Anatolia as in Northern regi- 
ons. 

Now if ever would foe the moment for nearly two hundred 
thousand Turks, driven out of Smyrna by the Greek occupa- 
tion, wandering about the roads and in the streets, stripped 
of everything, exhausted and ill, to be restored to their homes. 
But that cannot be till after the withdrawal of the Greek troops 
who retain the country unduly and devastate it while inflicting 
the most odious tyranny on the people. Their delegates repe- 
ated this recently once more to Colonel Anderson, chief of 
staff to General Milne, the commander in chief of the allied 
forces in Anatolia. 

It is in vain that the pan-Hellenic propaganda services 
seek to hide the situation and to make believe that the Turks 
themsel ves demand the maintenance of the Greek domination 
and long to become fellow-citizens of Venizelos. The manifes- 

116 



tations invoked in support of this theory are only unworthy 
trickery whose falsehood is sometimes diverted toy ridicule 
without being rendered more plausible. 

In its support here is one episode amongst others : The 
French press generally better (advised, thought itself called 
upon recently to call attention to a pro-Hellenic manifestation 
by Cheyki^Bey, mufti of Ai'din. Now the mufti of Aidin is cal- 
led Hadji-Moustapha-Effendl. 

In these circumstances they had simply taken advantage 
of the journey of Hadji Moustapha Effendi to Const antinopte, 
having as object to cominunicate to the allied high commissi- 
oners the Greek misdeeds, and by confusing the titles, to raise 
a manifestation in the name of h'is functions against which 
he could not protest until after a delay favourable to the fal- 
sifiers. 

(But these doings deceive no one, the Ottoman Greeiks less 
than anyone; and 'even as regards these last the Greeiks of 
Hellade have wasted their time. One of the Ottoman Greek 
parties does not wish to change its political status, Ottoman 
they are, Ottoman they intend to remain. It is sufficient to 
read the report published by the honourable M. Stamat, judge 
at the law courts of AMin and a Greek by nationality, to be 
completely convinced on this point. And the Ottoman Greek 
refugees themselves will not return to their homes as long as 
the Greeks of Hellade are there. iQff these there are 400 at 
Burhanie and 500 at Denizli. 

Are the foreigners more inclined to pass from Ottoman 
"barbarism" to Greek "civilisation"? Not at all. And that not 
even the Italians, French, English, Americans, all natives of 
countries with traditional pro Hellenic sympathies, who are 
unanimous in claiming that the fate of Smyrna should not be 
different to that of Asia Minor. The English Chamber of Com- 
merce at Smyrna has taken the decision to do its utmost to 
prevent Smyrna's being separated from Asia Minor. Thus the 
families, heads of their respective colonies, the Guiffretand 
Girods of France as well as the Whitals of England and the 

117 



Grynns of America. And passing from wishes to actions, and 
from words to deeds, they have sent delegates to Paris and 
to London, to demand a thing so simple and yet it aeems, so 
complicated in these days of the peoples' right to self-determi- 
nation that Turkey should remain in the possession of her 
children, and to obtain the solution which aione seems to them 
just and profitable, the maintenance of Turkey. That of which 
they are daily the helpless witnesses is besides scarcely likely 
to convert them; al kinds of misdeeds, pillaging, nothing is 
wanting to complete this "peacable occupation"!!! Not even 
forced hypocrisy, since to complain is a crime and to protest 
in the face of civilised humanity, one still greater! The mufti 
of Magnesie, who thought it his duty to present a report to 
the Inquiry Commission of the Entente and who was obliged 
on that account to flee in haste and whose possessions were 
plundered, could say something about is. 

And meanwhile in the midst of this pretended civilised 
culture, one of the countries blessed by humanity and one of 
the most indispensable to its reconstitut'ion after the horrible 
catastrophe of the world-war, threatens to fall. The English 
of Smyrna estimate at 80 millinn pounds sterling the damege 
sustained by the province of Smyrna since the beginning of 
the Hellenic occupation. 

That is not enough to bring out the whole truth. Thus on 
the rights and the deeds in the question of Anatolia we demand 
the complete publication of the reports of the Allied Inquiry 
Commission at Smyrna. If they are communicated to the Greeks 
the most elementary justice demands that they should be so 
also to the Turks who do not wish there to be any mystery 
when for them unlike their adiversaires there is no longer 
any question of the luxury of imperialism, (but of the imperious 
necessity of independence. 

But whatever resistance the Greeks may make, in the end 
truth will out. Intelligent people will not let themselves be ta- 
ken in by bluff and many among them can see in spite of all 
the efforts made to blind them. 

118 



iOf this number is the loyal Commander of the French 
cruiser "Democracy" who forwarded to Paris a report crus- 
hing for the Greeks and their methods of occupation. 

Ijet us proclaim aloud, that this independence they will 
never -give up to submit to the Hellenic yoke never, so long 
as the last Turk has not fallen by the eastern shores of the 
Aegean-<Sea, will the Greek reign there hi peace. For the tran- 
quillity of the near Bast and at the same time for that of Eu- 
rope, it is necessary that the Powers should insist without de- 
lay on the withdrawal of the Greek army from Asia-Minor 
where it has nothing to do for the security of life and the safe 
guarding of property, and where it has established itself in 
defiance of the convention of the armistice and one of the 
strongest principles of the rights of man. 



Telegram sent on the 10th November to the Superior 
Council by the permanent Bureau of the Turkish Congress 
of Lausanne. 

At the moment when the Council is examining the ques- 
tion of Smyrna it is our desire respectfully to present to it our 
wishes which are identical with those of the whole Turkish 
nation. We trust that the Council will put an end to the occu- 
pation which has taken place without reason and the results 
of which have been to fill the country with bloodshed, as has 
been reported by the inquiry commission and also to create 
enmity between two races destined to live together. The Tur- 
kish people will never tolerate an uncivilised domination in 
every point inferior to its own, and so long as a single Greek 
soldier remains on the sacred soil of the father-land, the last 
Turk left alive will continue to fight. 



119 



INDEX 

Introduction 3 

Letter addressed to the French colonel Foulon ... 8 

The Tragedy of Smyrna : 

'Memorial of the League for the defence of Otto- 
man Rights in Smyrna 11 

How the barracks were occupied 17 

Killed and wounded officers 22 

How the governor's Palace was occupied 23 

iReport of the military commission 29 

Extracts from the Report of the Delegate of the 

Ottoman League 34 

Letter from an English officer upon the occupa- 
tion of Smyrna 36 

Letter from a French naval officer 39 

The events of Magnesie : 

Memorial presented to the high commissioners of 

the great Powers 45 

The Violated Mosques 47 

The events of Akhisar 47 

The massacres of Bergamo and of Menemen : 

Memorial on the events of IRergamo 48 

Extracts from the report presented to the Inquiry 

Commission 51 

121 



Appeal from the survivors of the massacres of 

Menemen to the Allied [Powers ^ 56 

The results of an inquiry at Menemen 58 

The events of Ayazmend : 61 

The burned villages in the region of Bergamo .... 61 

The events of Tire 61 

The Horrors of the Valley of Meandre : 

(Memorial on the atrocities during the occupation 

of the town of Aidin 64 

Letter from the commandant of the national for- 
ces at Tchine 69 

Telegram from the Governor of DenMi 71 

Report of the Governor of Aidin 72 

Telegram from the Commandant of the 57th di- 
vision at Tchine 74 

Provisional list of killed hi the town of Aidin .... 76 

Telegram from the Governor of Aidin concerning 

the burned villages 76 

Telegram from the Treasurer of Aidin 78 

Report of M. Stamath (Greek Ottoman) on the 

occupation of Aidin 79 

Report of the Governor of Ine-Abad 85 

Protestation of the inhabitants of the devastated 

regions 88 

Appeal from the population of the Valley of Me- 
andre : 91 

Report of the survivors of the quarter of D4lbagh 

at Aidin , 93 

The Atrocities at (NaasUili 93 

Addendum 95 

122 



^Report of the Doctor Mazhar 100 

Report of the Doctor Mazhar 105 

The burned villages 109 

Protestation of the Greek and Armenian Religi- 
ous-Chiefs 110 

Circular from the Ottoman League ; Ill 

Appeal published by the permanent bureau of the 

Turkish congress at Lausanne the July 1919 .... 114 

Appeal published by the same bureau the 20 the oc- 

tobre 1919 -. 116 

Telegram addressed to the Supreme Council by the 

same bureau 119 



123 



RECENT PUBLICATIONS IN FRENCH 



concerning the Turkish question : 

Asia Minor and its populations (published by the Turc-Yourdou 
of Lausanne). 

Turkish civilisation hi Asia Minor (published by the Turc- 
Yourdou of Lausanne). 

Memorial on the nationalities established in Asia Minor (pub- 
lished by the Turc-Yourdou of Geneva). 

Smyrna (from the economic, ethnographical, historic and po- 
litical point of view), published by Turc-Yourdou of Lau- 



Modern Turkey (published by Turc-Yourdou of Geneva). 

An appeal to justice (published by the teague for the defence 
of Ottoman rights and approved by the national Congress 
held at Smyrna the 17th March 1919, Constantinople). 

The Allies we ought to have, by Pierre Loti (Pamphlet repro- 
duced by the Association of Turkish Interests, at Geneva). 

The Armenian Massacres, by Pierre Loti. 

Memorandum on the right of the Turkish nationality (publis- 
hed at Lausanne). 

Memorial on the rights and claims of the Turkish people (pub- 
lished at Geneva). 

The Turks and the Armenian question, by Kara Schemsi. 
The Turks and Panhellenism, by KaraSchemsi. 
The Extermination of the Turks, by Kara Schemsi. 
The Turkish Proletariat at the international socialist Congress 
of Berne (1919) by Kara Schemsi. 
Islam, the Turks and the Society of Nations, by Kara Schemsi. 



Turks and Armenians in the light of history (refutations of 
the memorial of the Armenian legation) , by Kara iSchemsi. 

The events hi Turkey since the armistice, by Ahmed Hakki. 
The Turko-Armenian Question, by Rusteim (Bey. 
See also: 

The Allied Powers and Turkey. An address delivered by The 
Hon. Yakub Hassan in a public meeting in London. 
Publishers. John Keally & Son Ltd. & Johnson Const, 
FleetnStr. E. C. 

The Armenians, by C. F. Dixon-Johnson. 

Publishers : Geo. Toulnim & Son Ltd., Northgate, Black- 
burn. 

The Hellenic Greek Scourge in Turkey, by A. Field. 

Published toy Anglo-Ottoman Society, 158 Fleet Street, 
London (E. C. 

The Sword Against Islam, by Shaikh M. H. KMwai of Gadia. 
Editors : 158 Fleet Strset, London E. C. 




A 0000530377 



See also : 



The Allied Powers and Turkey. An address delivered by The Hon. 
Yakub Hassan in a public meeting in London. 

Publishers: John Really & Son Ltd. & Johnson Coust, 
Fleef-Str. E. C. 

The Armenians, by C. F. Dixon-Johnson. 

Publishers : Geo. Toulnim & Son Ltd., Northgate, Black- 
burn. 

The Hellenic Greek Scourge in Turkey, by A. Field. 

Published by Anglo-Ottoman Society^ 158 Fleet Street, 
London E. C. 

The Sword Against Islam, by .Shaikh M. H. Kidwai of Gadia. 
Editors : 158 Fleet Strset, London E. C. 



Recent Publications in French 

concerning the Turkish question : 

Asia Minor and its populations (published by the Turc-Yourdou ot 
Lausanne). 

Turkish civilisation in Asia Minor (published by the Turc-Yourdou of 

Lausanne). 

Memorial on the nationalities established in Asia Minor (published by the 
Turc-Yourdou of Geneva). 

Smyrna (from the economic, ethnographical, historic and political 
point of view), published by Turc-Yourdou of Lausanne. 

Modern Turkey (published by Turc-Yourdou of Geneva). 

An appeal to justice (published by the league for the defence of 
Ottoman rights and approved by the national Congress held 
at Smyrna the 17 th March 1919, Constantinople). 

The Allies we oaght to have, by Pierre Loti (Pamphlet reproduced 
by the Association of Turkish Interests, at Geneva). 

The Armenian Massacres, by Pierre Loti. 

Memorandum on the right of the Turkish nationality (published at Lau- 
sanne). 

Memorial on tht rights and claims of the Turkish people (published at 
Geneva). 

The Turks and the Armenian question, by Kara Schemsi. 
The Turks and Panhellenisni, by Kara Schemsi. 
The Extermination of the Turks, by Kara Schemsi. 

The Turkish Proletariat at the international socialist Congress of Berne (1919) 
by Kara Schemsi. 

Islam, the Turks and the Society of Nations, by Kara Schemsi. 

Turks and Armenians in the light of history (refutations of the memo- 
rial of the Armenian legation), bf Kara Schemsi. 
The events in Turkey since the armistice, by Ahmed Hakki. 
The Turko-Armenian Question, bv Husteim Bev.